- Background of the study
The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any
developing or industrial society. Waste, both from domestic and
commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past
decade. Every time a householder shops at the store, and open market he
contributes to the mountain of waste. It is possible to quote figures
which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons.
The percent of Nigeria’s population living in cities and urban areas
has more than doubled in the last 15 years.
The cities and urban areas experience continuous growth which
contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste. The
management of waste is a matter of national and international concern.
The volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the
ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal
firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment.
There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of
living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the
quality of their lives.
The corollary is that improper disposal or storage of this waste
can constitute hazards to the society through the pollution of air,
land and especially water. In this paper, our attention would be focused
on domestic waste. We will highlight some of the problems which have
attended the management of this category of waste in Nigeria today. It
will be seen that Nigeria has not done well in the direction of
tackling the menace of domestic waste. This is even in the face
advanced management strategies existing today for domestic waste
management which have been adopted in many places. We will proffer
suggestions that may assist in addressing this issue that seems to be
aborting most efforts of International organizations, the federal
government, city authorities, states and professionals alike.
The defective strategies and arrangements adopted for solid waste
management in Nigerian cities create the erroneous impression that
urban waste management problems are intractable. This sterns from the
fact that the rate of collection and evacuation perpetually lag behind
the rate of generation which makes solid waste accumulation a major
source of environmental nuisance in Nigerian cities. Waste management
therefore, concerns the interplay among generation, storage, collection
and final disposal (Omuta, 1988). Sada (1984) has observed that in
1980, on the average, a balance of 100 metric tons of solid waste are
piled up daily in Benin City. This is because while about 350 metric
tons of solid wastes are generated daily, the maximum rate of
evacuation achievable was only 250 metric tons daily. Uchegbu (1988)
remarked that big cities like Port harcourt, Lagos, Kano, etc in
Nigeria produced on the average 46kg of solid waste per person, per
As living standards rise, people consume more and generate more
waste. Right from 1990s Uyo city has metamorphosed into a resort center
because of its congenial living environment which attracts an influx
of weekend leisure seekers into the city. These leisure seekers merely
come into Uyo to relax, consume and enjoy themselves every weekend thus
contributing enormously to weekly waste generation in Uyo City.
Atuegbu (2007) reports that between 500 and 850 metric tons of waste are
generated daily in Uyo city. At Itam market, the rate of waste
generation is so high that in one night, a refuse dump site that was
cleared the previous day could be replaced with an equal volume of
waste the following morning, thus creating the erroneous impression
that it was never clear before. The scenario is the same at Akpan Adem
market, area of Uyo Metropolis.
- Statement of the problem
Many people in African countries including Nigeria regard the
concern for effective strategies for managing waste as a less important
issue which may distract attention from the most urgent and serious
problem of achieving a fast rate of economic growth. This attitude
stems in part from the belief that environmental degradation with waste
generation is an inevitable price of development
1.3 Significance of the study
The aim of this paper is to proffer waste management strategies
which will effectively address the problems emanating from waste
management and Uyo metropolis was used for the study.
- Objectives of the study
The objectives of this research include but not limited to;
1. To know if there are strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis
2. To determine if there is a significant relationship between waste generation and management strategy.
1.5 Research questions
In order to achieve the above stated objectives, the following questions were asked;
1. Is there a strategy for managing waste generated in the city of Uyo?
2. What significant relationship exists between waste generation and management strategy?
3. What are the strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis?
1.6 Research hypotheses
Ho: There are no strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis.
Hi: There are strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis.
Ho: No significant relationship exists between waste generation and management strategy.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between waste generation and management strategy.
1.7 Limitations of the study
The study was carried out to investigate the strategies for
managing waste generated in a city. The study was limited by two major
factors; financial constraint and Time.
1.8 Scope of the study
The study focuses on waste generation and management strategies using the Uyo metropolis as a case study.
1.9 Definition of terms
Waste: This refers to an unwanted or unusable material, substance, or by-product.
Waste Management: This is the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products.
Waste Management Strategy: This is the process
involved in dealing with the waste of humans and organisms, including
minimization, handling, processing, storage, recycling, transport, and
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