1.1 Background of the study
quarrying is a major economic activity in many developing countries including
Nigeria. Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources of international
value, including gold, marble, gypsum, gemstones, iron ore, natural gas, topaz,
coal, clay, lead, tar sand, construction stone and construction sand. While the
exploitation of natural resources has traditionally been seen as a vital part
of economic growth, it is now well recognized that concern for environmental
and socio economic consequences must be included as a key component of
development activities. In many developing nations like Nigeria, quarrying is
an important contributor to the national economy. However, the negative
environmental impacts of quarrying are increasingly being recognized as
critical (Bridge, 2004). In response, many companies, especially international
ones, are embracing Corporate Social Responsibility as a fundamental component
of resource extraction operations, including quarrying (Garriga and Mele,
2004). The quarrying sector may strengthen the economy at the national scale;
it may also present an entirely new set of problems at the scale of the local
community. Exercising social responsibility in small, remote centers, however,
often means that international and transnational corporations must interact
with rural or indigenous people who have strong emotional and historical links
to the land (Garvin et al., 2009).
socio-economic impacts are synonymous with adverse and benefits. It could
include pressure on local housing, market and increase in community conflict
and crime. The creation of supporting social infrastructure including schools,
hospitals and so on may transform a previously remote area and investment in
transport facilities may improve accessibility to other centers of economic
activities, further enhancing its prospect for development. Indeed, governments
frequently regard quarrying projects as an opportunity to ‘open-up’ peripheral
regions. Impacts do not fall evenly on affected parties and areas. Although a
particular project may be assessed as bringing a general benefit. Some groups
and / or geographical areas may be receiving most of any adverse effects, the
main benefits going to others elsewhere. There is also a distinction between
actual and perceived impacts. Subjective perceptions of impacts may
significantly influence the responses and decisions of people towards a
proposed development. Modern quarrying methods are highly capital intensive by
comparison with those prevailing in the 19th century. This limits not only the
number, but also the type of job opportunities. Locally-recruited labour often
lacks the skills required to operate complex machinery and management usually
remains in the hands of imported expatriate personnel. This in turn creates an
enclave mentality in which quarrying communities remain isolated from the wider
society of the country. Many of the biggest disappointments have resulted from
the failure of mineral processing and related downstream manufacturing to
develop at or near the site of extraction. It is these activities which create
the largest number of jobs and frequently the greatest profit. They are
therefore, highly desirable from a policy perspective. It is not only
governments in developing countries which have been frustrated by the minimal
extent of downstream processing; state authorities within developed economies
have had similar experiences. The contribution on people and culture/heritage
within close proximity to the quarrying operation (host communities) by the
industry should create an environment that will accept and encourage
development (McDivitt and Jeffery, 1992).
carried out by Humann (2004) revealed the Luka community (South Africa)
representatives staunchly opposed the proposed Impala open cast mine on the
grounds that the community has not benefited from the company’s historical
activities in the area and has not been adequately compensated for negative
impacts caused by the company activities in the area. The research also
revealed that the company efforts to communicate directly with community
representatives in the local government ward committee, including constructing
a small office building to facilitate community meetings and interaction with
the company yielded little or no result due to tribal faction not until the
company realizes that, given the new, increasing motives for community engagement,
supporting legitimate representation structures in the community.
of the problem
quarrying activities can led to health effects ranging from respiratory
problems to mental disorders. Studies in Tanzania revealed that symptoms of heavy
metal poisoning such as sensory disturbance, tremor, gingivitis, metallic
taste, neurasthenia and night blindness are common (Harada et al., 1999). In
the last five years, studies on environmental impact of limestone quarrying and
processing in Sagamu (Sagamu – Ogun State, Nigeria) have revealed a declining
kola nut output from the plantations within a few kilometres radius of the
cement factory (Adekoya, 2003; Aigbedion, 2005). Exploitation and processing of
minerals in a particular area creates cultural impacts, which involves the
changes to norms, values and beliefs of individuals that guide and rationalize
the cognition of themselves and their society (Burdge and Vanclay, 1996).
1.3 Significance of the study
The aim of this project is to determine the environmental
impact assessment of limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area of
AkwaIbom state, interpret findings, analyze implications, and convey high level
results and implications to national decision-makers for sustainable and better
environment of all limestone deposit areas in Nigeria.
1.4 Objectives of the study
study was undertaken majorly to examine the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in
limestone deposit areas.
objectives of the study are:
To ascertain whether there is asignificant environmental impact of
limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas.
To know whether the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in
limestone deposit area is accessible.
1.5 Research questions
In the course of the study, the
researcher seeks to provide suitable answers to the problem following the
1. Is there a significant environmental
impact of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas?
2. Can the environmental impact assessment
of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area be accessed?
1.6 Research hypotheses
Limestone quarrying has no significant environmental impact on limestone
Limestone quarrying has significantenvironmental impact on limestone deposit
The environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit
area is inaccessible.
The environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit
area is accessible.
1.7 Limitations of the study
The study was carried out to investigate the environmental
impact assessment of
limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area. The study is limited to Ini
Local Government AreainAkwaIbom State. This is because of the representative nature of all limestone deposit
in Nigeria, proximity to the researcher, time and financial constraints.
1.8 Scope of the study
research work is on the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying
Local Government Area with particular emphasis on how it impacts on quality
standards of the soil and water in Ini Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State.
Limestone:This is a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly
of calcium carbonate or dolomite, used as building material and in the making
Quarry:This is a place where large blocks of
naturally occurring sedimentary calcite or aragonite rock are cut from the
earth, mainly for use in construction.
Deposit Area: This
is an area where limestone is found.
Impact Assessment: This
is a process of
evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development,
taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.