1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Urban areas are the engines of economic
growth as well as location for complex network of activities essential
to basin human function of living and working (Mattingly, 1995). The
lure of employment and the perception of improved quality of life in the
cities are major socio-economic pull factors (Harris & Todaro,
1970; World Bank, 2007).
The huge increase in urban population
amounts to a crisis of unprecedented magnitude in urban shelter
provision, space for commerce and industry, quality health care and a
conducive environment. Every year, the world’s urban population is
increasing by about 70million, equivalent to seven new megacities. These
people need to be provided with shelter, employment and urban services.
People deserve the right to enjoy a living space that is clean and
maintained making it easy to agree that the clean-up of urban areas is
essential to building a lasting community. The way an area looks has an
impact on who moves there, how long they stay, and ultimately decides
the future of that neighbourhood. Picking up trash, maintaining the
landscape, and the demolition of abandoned buildings could inspire
residents to work together to rebuild their community. For
neighbourhoods that have lost their appeal as destinations of choice, a
community clean up may be what is needed in order to revitalize the
area. (September 5, 2013 by Malcolm Johnson).
Urban beautification starts by
identifying the cosmetic changes that can be made in a specific
neighborhood then working with the residents to make community
improvements. Organizing specific days for residents to pick up trash or
to engage in some sort of area refurbishment is crucial to creating a
better place to live. Furthermore, public officials share part of this
responsibility as well, and should make policy initiatives to improve
the regions they represent. By putting in place programs to repair
streets, sidewalks, and demolish abandoned buildings, policy makers can
contribute to rebuilding a community. In order to make sure an area that
has been rehabbed remains in the best condition, lawmakers also have a
duty to enforce ordinances that will ensure the maintenance and
cleanliness of a neighborhood.
In addition to gaining a nicer living
space, beautification may cause residents to have an increased sense of
pride in where they live. While there is no quick fix to the many
problems that are present in urban areas, a person who lives in a clean
environment may be more optimistic about the future. Living in a place
that is constantly improving might just inspire individuals to do the
same within themselves. The Neighborhood Beautification Program was
designed to engage communities to beautify underutilized spaces in each
of the City’s wards. This program complements the City's increased
efforts to clean and revitalize overlooked City owned spaces.
Urban areas in the developing world are
under constant pressure of a growing population. Cities, metropolis and
mega cities are now emerging as centers of domestic and international
investments in an era of economic reforms, liberalization and
globalization. This has created opportunities for technologists and
planning professionals to guide and develop the process of planned
development and monument. One of the main objectives of town planning is
creation a conducive environment that is functional, efficient and
visually satisfying for living, working, recreation and worship.
However, many of today’s urban structures were never planned, for
instance, Ibadan city, was built at a time when planning awareness was
substantially different from today.
According to Agbola (1987:89), Ibadan as
a city was either not planned successfully or not planned at all. A
large part of the city seems to be unplanned and dominated by the
trading activities. Those who engaged in trading activities occupy an
open spaces or shops along major roads in other to display their goods.
Sometimes they cover front of a residential building along the road to
shops while some other cases, the traders display goods very close to
the road setbacks. For those who occupy open spaces, container,
umbrellas serves as their shops in which they display their goods. In
other words, standard for physical development in Oyo state are easily
flouted and usually “there is no approval for change of use of open
sites for utilities and services” (Agbola 2009).
Urban beautification refers to a program
that protects and seeks to restore the beaty inherent in a targeted
environment, in this case of urban centre. Most developing countries in
the world engage in urban beautification of cities whose state has
deteriorated or decayed, in order to enhance the quality of the
environment and for the purpose of bringing out nature’s beauty. There
are various forms of urban beautification, among which are creation of
car parks, the provision of proper refuse dump for dirt in order to
avoid littering, construction of bridges to enhance transportation,
construction of walkways, sculpture decoration, ornamentation and
greening of the environment and many more. The underlying purpose of
carrying out these projects are to give a facelift to parts of the
cities, that is, development and to make the immediate environment
attractive for investors, among others (Bilgili BC and Gokyer E 2012).
In the case of Nigeria, the Action
Congress of Nigeria (ACN), that was ruling some state of the federation
then before changing to All Progressive Congress (APC) in the last
general election of 2015, was carrying out beautification projects as
part of its political agenda. This is to bring about a face lift to the
states they govern, in terms of planting greens (flowers, trees) and
expanding old major roads to enhance movement in the respective states
and the country.
Therefore, these two forms of urban
beautification are of paramount importance to the present study on
Ibadan urban. However, just a few portion of the state capital was
In the case of Ibadan region, that is,
the pattern of urban beautification differs in the entire metropolis.
Places like Eleyele, Onireke, Aleshiloye, Gate, uch, Mokola, Challenge
are more of road expansion project, then, Ring-Road, Gate, Dugbe,
Bodija, Toll Gate and Akinyemi that features the planting of greens.
Whatever the case, before any form of
beautification could be implemented, certain structures would have been
demolished. Consequently, social and economic activitives would have
been impacted negatively among others. Therefore, containers, kiosks or
any other structure that are built in open spaces close to the road were
subject to demolition. In Ibadan urban, more than 400 structures,
including residential buildings that encroached on roads and illegal
structures built by dwellers and traders were demolished in designated
commercial parts of the city.The presence study is therefore to verify
the perception of Ibadan metropolis dwellers on urban beautification
programmes in Ibadan metropolis.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There are many problems facing most
urban centers, among which are the growth of illegal unauthorized
structures; that is structures that flout principle of the standard
offset backs to roads, high tension power-lines and unauthorized
conversion of approved use of land to different use(s) that’s encroached
on open spaces. These are compounded by growing population size and
increase of social and economic activities. Ibadan metropolis, as a
commercial nerve center of Nigeria and as an area experiencing high rate
of urbanization is lacking in terms of adequate
physical layout adnd planning. In the
recent past, Ibadan was classified as one of the dirtiest cities in the
world, due to the shabby environmental situation of the largest city,
south of the Sahara. (Kumuyi 2005).
However, Oyo state Government took
interest in urban beautification in order to transform the city into a
better shape. This resulted in the demolition of illegal structures
along selected road. The spilt-over effect is the displacement of
traders that occupied the illegal shops and spaces along the roads. The
present study is therefore to examine the forms of urban beautification
that are implemented in Ibadan urban and the way the dwellers perceived
it. These are examined in terms of changes in the rate of security, road
accessibility, loss of buildings/shops, damaged acquired by individuals
to the city.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to assess the
perception on urban beautification programs in Ibadan metropolis. The
specific objectives are to:
- To assess urban beautification programs in Ibadan metropolis.
- To examine the perception of the inhabitants of Ibadan metropolis on the urban beautification programs.
- To examine the effects of urban beautification programs on the livelihood of inhabitants of the study area.
1. Where are the urban beautification projects found across the study area?
- What are the forms of urban beautification in Ibadan?
- Which urban structure was demolished to accommodate the exiting urban beautification projects?
- What are people’s perception of urban beautification in Ibadan metropolis?
- What have been the impact of the beautification on urban dwellers in Ibadan metropolis?
1.5. Research hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference in the perception of inhabitants about urban beautification programs.
1.6: SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study which assesses the perception
and attitude of people towards urban beautification program in Ibadan
Metropolis is significant as it is expected to arise the consciousness
of the people on the benefit of city beautification and space in urban
areas. The study will help change the attitude and perception of people
and government officials about urban beautification programs. It will
help to bring about the better management and maintenance of Ibadan city
cleanliness and beauty.
1.7 STUDY AREA
1.7.1 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
Ibadan is said to be the largest
indigenous urban city in Africa, south of the Sahara (Mabogunje, 1968).
The city has a total human population of 2,550,593 (National Population
Census, 2006). Ibadan is located at latitude of 7° 25' N of the equator
and longitude of 3° 54' E and approximately 145 kilometres north of
Lagos. The city is directly connected to many towns in Nigeria and its
rural hinterland by a system of roads, railways and air routes. It is
located near the forest-grassland boundary of South-western Nigeria. The
need to develop housing to meet the need of the rising population has
led to the occupancy of floodplains. It was established by Lagelu after
the destruction of the first settlement near Awotan in the Ido Local
Government Area (Mabogunje, 1968). This is shown in figure 1.1 below.
Ibadan city the capital of Oyo state of
Nigeria can be describe as a traditional city as a result of certain
characteristics it possesses- a central market, a remarkable social
structure and the rather unusual pattern of urban – rural migration. The
city is the second fastest growing city in Nigeria after Lagos and the
largest indigenous urban centers in Africa. It has a sound network which
connects many towns in Nigeria – roads, railways and air routes. Most
traders from Lagos to the northern state through Abeokuta and Sagamu
meet in Ibadan before proceeding to their destinations.
1.7.2 LAND USE PATTERN OF IBADAN
Ibadan an indigenous city grew
organically without due consideration for effective physical planning.
Ibadan is characterized by both planned and unplanned growth. The
unplanned sector of the city is in the south eastern part which is
predominantly inhabited by the indigenes. This area constitutes about
60% of the spatial coverage. The non-indigenous sector is a mixture of
planned and area. The planned areas have experienced varied degrees of
planned growth. The growth of the city is a jig saw affair which is not
coordinated within a master plan. It is yet to produce its development
plan. The only tool used for controlling development is lay out plan
which is even called “adopted layout” as a result of land use degree of
The pattern of urban land use shows that
the largest use of land is still for residential purposes which occupy
about 51.39% of the total land in the metropolitan area. Industrial use
of land account for only 14.34% (Muili 2005). The core area are mostly
characterized by residential land use inhabited largely by the
indigenous Ibadan population and early non- Yoruba migrants and a number
of newer suburbs. The core area –Beere Labiran, Oje etc, where proceed
of compound disintegration called growth by fusion may still be observed
today (Mabogunje 1968). Commercial activities in Ibadan can be found in
Gbagi-Dugbe axis, Gate-Iwo road axis, etc. Dugbe is central business
district of Ibadan.
1.7.3 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ibadan
Traditionally, the occupation of the
Ibadan people is trading and crafting. The favorite climate condition
encourages farming, so also the natural features of sending and swampy
soil. The farming suburb stretched over considerable distance into the
surrounding country sides. Apart from farming, others are self-employed
in various occupations such as carpentry, motor mechanics, driving,
printing, hairdressing, barbing etc.
Trading has played a paramount role in
the development of Ibadan and thereby increasing population which
eventually led to high standard of living. The administrative influence
of Ibadan to more than half of the entire Yoruba speaking people of
Nigeria, due to their strong influence to invade and subdue other
settlers for many years. The locational advantage of the city has made
it that prominence as favorable center for political, commercial,
educational industrial and social activities. The scale of activities
created a job opportunity and consequently influence people into the
city as such, responsible for a great population and large extend in