This study was
intended to evaluate the consequences of deforestation on rural household
income. This study was guided by the following objectives; to find out the
causes of deforestation in Odighi in Edo state, to examine the consequences of
in rural household income, to determine the strategies of reducing
The study employed
the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library
research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data
sources were used and data was analyzed using simple percentages which was
presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study
were 50 respondents including farmers, hunters and staff of agricultural and
forestry department in Odighi Edo state, Abuja branch. The study majorly
focuses on the consequences of deforestation on rural household income.
The study findings
revealed that deforestation negatively affects rural household income in Odighi
Edo state; based on the findings from the study, efforts should be made by the
Nigerian government and stakeholders in promoting tree planting and preservation.
is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter
converted to a non-forest use. Examples
of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban
use. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or
sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land
is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and settlements.
The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to
habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on
biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is
responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of
deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation.
Other causes of contemporary deforestation may
include corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of
wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation, and urbanization.
Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though
there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new ﬂows of labor,
capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery.
is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major
causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible
for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. In deforested areas,
the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized
upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more
water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater
through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest
is removed, the trees no longer transpire this water, resulting in a much drier
climate. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater
as well as atmospheric moisture. The dry soil leads to lower water intake for
the trees to extract. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion,
flooding and landslides ensue.
TO THE STUDY
cover almost a third of the earth’s land surface providing many environmental
benefits including a major role in the hydrologic cycle, soil conservation,
prevention of climate change and preservation of biodiversity (Sheram, 1993).
Forest resources can provide long-term national economic benefits. For example,
at least 145 countries of the world are currently involved in wood production
(Anon., 1994). Sufficient evidence is available that the whole world is facing
an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For years remorseless
destruction of forests has been going on and we have not been able to
comprehend the dimension until recently. Nobody knows exactly how much of the
world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each
year. Data is often imprecise and subject to differing interpretations.
However, it is obvious that the area of tropical rainforest is diminishing as
observed in the case of Odighi forest in Odighi Local government area of Edo
State and the rate of tropical rain forest destruction is escalating worldwide,
despite increased environmental activism and awareness. Deforestation is the
conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as
agriculture, grazing or urban development (van Kooten et al, 2000).
is primarily a concern for the developing countries of the tropics (Myers,
1994) as it is shrinking areas of the tropical forests (Barraclough et al,
2000) causing loss of biodiversity and enhancing the greenhouse effect
(Angelsen et al., 1999). FAO considers a plantation of trees established
primarily for timber production to be forest and therefore does not classify
natural forest conversion to plantation as deforestation (but still records it
as a loss of natural forests). However, FAO does not consider tree plantations
that provide non-timber products to be forest although they do classify rubber
plantations as forest.
degradation occurs when the ecosystem functions of the forest are degraded but
where the area remains forested rather cleared (Anon., 2010).
per cent of the earth’s land area or about 3.9 billion hectares is covered by
forests. It was estimated that the original forest cover was approximately six
billion hectares (Bryant etal., 1997). The Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada,
the United States of America and China were the most forest rich countries
accounting to 53 per cent of the total forest area of the globe. Another 64
countries having a combined population of two billions was reported to have
forest on less than ten per cent of their total land area and unfortunately ten
of these countries have no forest at all. Among these countries 16 are such
which had relatively substantial forest areas of more 1than one million
hectares each and three of these countries namely Chad, the Islamic Republic of
Iran and Mongolia each had more than ten million hectares of forest. The forest
area remained fairly stable in North and Central America while it expanded in
Europe during the past decade. Asian continent especially in India and China
due to their large scale afforestation programme in the last decade registered
a net gain in forest area. Conversely the South America, Africa and Oceania had
registered the net annual loss of forest area (Anon., 2010).
OF THE PROBLEM
is enough evidence that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on
account of heavy deforestation. For several years, there has been remorseless of
destruction which must be put under control to avoid some bad consequences
associated with deforestation. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s
rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year.
Data is often imprecise and subject to differing interpretations. However, this
research work will focus on the consequences of deforestation on the rural
house hold income especially as observed in Odighi in Edo State.
aim of this study is to determine the causes and consequences of deforestation
in Odighi and the following objectives are stated for this research study:
find out the causes of deforestation in Odighi Edo State
find out the consequences of deforestation on rural house hold income in Odighi
determine the strategies for reducing deforestation.
are the causes of deforestation in Odighi Edo State?
are the consequences of deforestation on rural household income in Odighi Edo
are the strategies for reducing deforestation?
OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research are:
To provide solutions which can assist
educators, general public and the government on the causes and consequences of
deforestation thereby raising an awareness about unwanted outcomes of
Findings from this research work will
also ascertain the extent of deforestation in Odighi Edo State
research work will help to improve the existing literatures on deforestation
thereby contributing to the body of knowledge.