PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN

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Urinary schistosomiasis is a common public health problem in the world caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium [1]. Individuals may acquire the disease during contact with water containing cercaria of the parasite [2]. S. haematobium is responsible for majority of deaths due to schistosomiasis in the world [3]. The disease is particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa where it is estimated to affect 112 million people [3,4]

 

S. haematobium infection causes haematuria, dysuria, lesions of the bladder, kidney failure, bladder cancer, [5–9]. Infection also interferes with nutrient uptake and can lead to undernutrition, growth and cognitive development retardation, and pose a serious threat to children’s health, education and productivity [10–13]. The disease is responsible for the death of 150,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa annually due to infection-related bladder problems [3,4].

Urinary  Schistosomiasis  also  called  Bilharzias  is  a parasitic  disease  caused  by  a  digenetic  blood  fluke  of  the genus  Schistosoma  called  Schistosoma  haematobium. The  disease  is  the  second  most  prevalent  neglected tropical  diseases  after  hookworm  (Hottez  and  Kamath, 2009)  and  remains  an  important  public  health  problem globally  especially  in  the  Sub-Saharan  African.  Of  the world’s  207  million  estimated  cases  of  Schistosomiasis, 93%  occur  in  the  Sub-Saharan  Africa  (192  million)  with largest  number  (29  million)  in  Nigeria  followed  by  United Republic  of  Tanzania  (19million)  (Hottez  and  Kamath, 2009).  Although  Schistosoma  haematobium  infection  do not  always  result  in  clinical  diseases  and  many  infections are  asymptomatic,  S.  haematobium  infection  is  said  to produce  bladder  wall  pathology  in  approximately 18million  people  in  Sub-Saharan  African  and  10million   *Corresponding  Author Email;  ishalekudavid@roketmail.com people  suffer  from  hydronephrosis  and  renal  failure  (Van der  Werf  et  al.,  2003).  A  significant  percentage  of  women and  men  with  urinary  Schistosomiasis  acquire  genital ulcers  and  other  lesions  (Kjetland  et  al.,  2006).  Poor reproductive  health  including  sexual  dysfunction  and infertility  [4].Genital  Schistosomiasis  has  also  been incriminated  to  promote  horizontal  transmission  of HIV/AIDS  in Sub-Saharan  African  (Kjetland  et  al.,  2006).   In  addition  to  the  organ-specific  pathology  for  S. haematobium  infections,  there  is  also  an  increasing evidence  for  more  generalized  morbidity  resulting  from chronic  inflammation  of  these  long-standing  infections (Kjetland  et  al  2006,  King  et  al.,  2005).  The  most important  are  anaemia  of  chronic  inflammation  and  iron deficiency  anaemia,  growth  stunting  and  malnutrition among  children,  fatigue  and  diminished  physical  fitness and  impaired  cognitive  developments  among  school children  (Kjetland  et al  2006,  King  et  al.,  2005). There are several  factors  contributing  to  the high rate  of Schistosoma  haematobium  infection in developing countries. Among these are; extreme poverty, lack of knowledge of the risks, inadequate or total lack of health facilities and poor sanitary conditions in which they lead daily(Hottez and Kamath, 2009, Uneke et al., 2010).

1.2 Problem Statement

S. haematobium infection causes haematuria, dysuria, lesions of the bladder, kidney failure, bladder cancer, [5–9]. Infection also interferes with nutrient uptake and can lead to undernutrition, growth and cognitive development retardation, and pose a serious threat to children’s health, education and productivity [10–13]. Hence there is need to assess its prevalence among school children.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is the prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium among school children.

 

1.4 Research Question

(1) what is S. heamatobium?

(2) How is it contacted ?

(3) what is its prevalence in the population?

(4) why the need to know its prevalence among school children?

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study gives a clear insight into the prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium among school children. The findings of this research will serve as a preliminary study to help the concerned authorities know which age group among the children is at higher risk of Schistosoma heamatobium.

 

1.6 Scope of the study

The research focuses on the prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium among school children.

 

1.7 Limitations

Samples were collected from children in selected schools and there was difficulty experienced in collecting the samples because they felt reluctant to give their urine.

 

REFERENCES

Anosike,  JC,  Nwoke,  BEB,  Njoku,  AJ  (2001).  The  validity  of  haematuria in  the  community  diagnosis  of  urinary  schistosomiasis  infections.  J Helminthol.  75:  223-225. Ekpo,  UF,  Deile,  AL,  Oluwale,  AS,  Sam-Wobo,  SO,  Mafiana,  CF  (2010). Urinary  schistosomiasis  among  preschool  children  in  a  rural community  near  Abeokuta,  Nigeria.  Parasites  and  Vectors,  3:  58. Hottez,  PJ,  Kamath,  A  (2009).  Neglected  tropical  diseases  in  SubSaharan  Africa:  Review  of  their  prevalence,  distribution  and  disease burden.  Plos  Negl  Trop  Dis.  3(8):412. King,  CH,  Dangerfield-Cha,  M  (2008).  The  unacknowledged  impact  of chronic  schistosomiasis,  Chronic  Illn.  4(1):  65. King,  CH,  Dickman,  K,  Tisch,  DJ  (2005).  Reassessment  of  the  cost  of chronic  helmintic  infection:  a  meta-analysis  of  disability-related outcomes  in  endemic  schistosomiasis.  Lancet,  365(9470):  156. Kjetland,  EF,  Ndhlovu,  PD,  Gorno,  E,  Mduluza,  T,  Midzi,  N,  et  al  (2006). Association  between  genital  schistosomiasis  and  HIV  in  rural Zimbabwean  women.  AIDS.  20:  593. Lyam,  A  (2006).  Nasarawa  State.  In:  Mamman,  A.  B;  Oyebanji,  J.  O. and  Fetters,  S.  W.  (ed2s)  Nigeria:  A  people  united;  A  future  assured, survey  of  States.  Mellennium  edition,  Gabumo  Press  Nigeria,  2000; pp383-385 Mafiana,  CF,  Ekpo,  UF,  Ojo,  DA  (2003).  Urinary  schistosomiasis  in preschool  children  in  settlement  around  Oyan  Reservoir  in  Ogun State,  Nigeria:  implication  for  control.  Trop.Med  Int  Health.  8(1):  7882. Nigeria  Population  Commission  (NPC).   Swai,  B,  Poggensee,  G,  Mtweve,  S,  Krantz,  I  (2006).  Female  genital schistosomiasis  as  an  evidence  of  a  neglected  cause  of  productive  illhealth:  A  retrospective  histopathological  study  from  Tanzania,  BMC infect.  Dis.  6:  134. Uneke,  C,  Ugwuok-Adibuah,  S,  Nwakpu,  K,  Ngwu,  B  (2010).  An assessment  of  Schistosoma  haematobium  infection  and  Urinary  tract bacterial  infection  amongst  school  children  in  rural  eastern  Nigeria. The  internet  jou.  of  Laboratory  medicine,  4:1 Van  der  Werf,  MJ,  de  Vias,  SJ,  Brooker,  S,  Looman,  CW,  Nagelkerke, NJ,  et  al  (2003).  Quantification  of  clinical  morbidity  associated  with schistosoma  infection  in  Sub-Saharan  Africa.  Acta  trop.  86(2-3):  125.

1. Steinmann P, Keiser J, Bos R, Tanner M, Utzinger J. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006; 6:411–425. pmid:16790382

2. Inobaya MT, Olveda RM, Chau TNP, Olveda DU, Ross AGP. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective. Res Rep Trop Med. 2014; 5: 65–75.

3. Pennington LF, Hsieh MH. Immune Response to Parasitic Infections, Bentham e books 2014; pp. 93–124.

4. Van der Werf MJ, de Vlas SJ, Brooker S, Looman CW, Nagelkerke NJ, Habbema JD, et al. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Trop. 2003; 86:125–139. pmid:12745133

5. WHO. Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis and Soil transmitted Helminthiasis- Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Tech Rep Ser. 2002; 912: 1–57.

6. Fenwick A, Savioli L, Engels D, Bergquist NR, Todd MH. Drugs for the Control of Parasitic Diseases: Current Status and Development in Schistosomiasis. Trends Parasitol. 2003; 19:509–515. pmid:14580962

7. Stephenson L. The impact of schistosomiasis on human nutrition. Parasitol. 1993; 107:S107–23.

8. Farid Z. Schistosomes with terminal-spined eggs: pathological and clinical aspects. In: Jordan P, Webbe G, Sturrock RF, editors. Human schistosomiasis. CAB International; 1993 pp.159–193.

9. Poggensee G, Feldmeier H. Female genital schistosomiasis: facts and hypotheses. Acta Trop. 2001; 79:193–210. pmid:11412803

10. Casmo V, Augusto G, Nala R, Sabonete A, Carvalho-Costa FA. The effect of hookworm infection and urinary schistosomiasis on blood hemoglobin concentration of schoolchildren living in northern Mozambique. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2014; 56(3):219–24. pmid:24879000

11. Deribew K1, Tekeste Z, Petros B, Huat LB. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013; 3(4):307–310. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60068-4. pmid:23620856

12. Sacko M, Magnussen P, Keita AD, Traoré MS, Landouré A, Doucouré A et al. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali. Acta Trop. 2011; 120:S142–150. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.12.009. pmid:21195046

13. Koukounari A, Gabrielli AF, Toure S, Bosque-Oliva E, Zhang Y, Sellin B et al. Schistosoma haematobium infection and morbidity before and after large-scale administration of praziquantel in Burkina Faso. J Infect Dis. 2007; 196(5):659–669. pmid:17674306

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN

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This study gives a clear insight into the prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium among school children. The findings of this research will serve as a preliminary study to help the concerned authorities know which age group among the children is at higher risk of Schistosoma heamatobium... food science and technology project topics

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN