Water is an essential natural resource
required by all living organisms. However among these living organisms,
human beings tend to use water most for the purposes of drinking,
personal, domestic, industrial and recreational uses (Igbeneghu and
Lamikanra 2014). Nigeria like other developing nations is faced with
problems of potable water supply for its estimated 160 million citizens
(Adesiji 2013). As a result of this and other factors, packaged drinking
water has been used as alternative drinking water source (Oyedeji et
al. 2010). Packaged drinking water is defined as water packaged in cans,
plastic sachets and pouches for the main purpose of consumption
(Warburton 1993). It is mostly common in low socio economic countries
has means of salvaging scarce potable, safe water and to generate
income, yet, various studies have shown that some packaged drinking
water may not be safe for drinking due to presence of pathogens (Ahmed
et al. 2013; Obiri-Danso et al. 2003).
According to Oyedeji et al. (2010),
water borne diseases are one of the major public health related problems
in developing countries like Nigeria. The ever increasing demand, sale
and indiscriminate consumption of packaged drinking water in Nigeria,
therefore, poses significant public health risks to the citizens
especially individuals with compromised immune systems (Mgbakor et al.
2011). Most producers of packaged drinking water in Nigeria obtain their
raw water mostly from sources such as local, municipal piped water or
well water and therefore, do not follow specified standards due to lack
of the appropriate drinking water technology (Oluyege et al. 2014).
Osun State Water Corporation (OSWC),
and the Rural Water Environmental Sanitation Agency (RUWESA) are
inadequate for the growing population and at best epileptic in
most Osogbo communities (OSWC, 2008). As a consequence of pipe
borne water shortage, the Osun State residents depend on water
from boreholes, hand-dug wells and water vended in sachets. From
a public health perspective, there is a need to ascertain the
quality of water accessible to the residents to avoid or reduce
incidence of contaminated water-related health hazards. Based on
this, the study was undertaken to assess the physical, chemical,
and bacteriological properties of of packaged water used by the
students residents of Osun State. The study is relevant in
assuring whether the quality of the packaged water meet the
regulatory standards because portable water is essential to life.
1.2 Problem Statement.
Despite various studies by researchers,
there is no information on prevailing pathogens. This study was,
therefore, carried out to compile nationally and internationally
published articles in order to summarize and compare occurrence of fecal
indicator bacteria and potential water borne bacterial pathogens in
packaged drinking water sold in Osun state.
So also analyse the physiochemical
properties of the packaged water to check if they conform with the
standard to ensure their safety.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study is the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun State.
1.4 Research Questions
(1) what are the various packaged water sold in Osun state?
(2) Is there any physical proof to show they are portable water?
(3) why the need to perform physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study gives a clear insight into
the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state.
The findings and recommendations of these research will enlighten
consumers on how safe the water samples are and may also help the
concerned regulatory bodies on the safety of the water sold in Osun
1.6 Scope of the study
This research focuses on the physiochemical and microbial analysis of packaged water sold in Osun state.
1.7 Limitations of the study
This study was conducted on selected samples of water sold in Osun State.
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