Biomass resources including wood and
wood wastes, agricultural residues, municipal solid waste, animal
wastes, wastes from food processing and aquatic plants and algae. They
are renewable resources whose utilization has received great attention
due to environmental consideration and the increasing demand of energy
worldwide. (Bakat et. al., 2009; Tsai et.al., 2007). Biomass can be
converted to energy via tgermochemical conversion processes such as
direct combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. (Pattiya Suttibak, 2012).
Fast pyrolysis or rapid pyrolysis is mostly applied to biomass so as to
change it to less energy- dense solid form into liquid form which
called Bio-oil. It is thermal decomposition occurring in the absent of
In fast pyrolysis, biomass decomposes
very quickly to generate mostly vapourised quickly to generate mostly
vapourised and some charcoal and non- considerable gas. After cooling
and condensation, a dark brown homogeneous mobile liquid is formed which
has heating value about half that of conventional fuel oil. A high
yield of liquid is obtained with most biomass feed low in ash.
Many researchers studied the production
of bio-oil from various types of biomass by many fast pyrolysis reaction
configuration. The yield of bio-oil could be as high as 75wt% on dry
biomass feed depending on the type of biomass and the reaction unit.
(Bridgewater, 2012). Bio-oil can be used as an alternative fuel i n
furnaces and engines in order to produce heat and power. In addition
bio-oil can be used as a raw material for chemical production. Groundnut
and peanut are species of legumes. They are oil crops. Also, oilpalm,
soybeans, coconuts, sesame and castor beans. The main sources of
groundnuts are in China, India, Nigeria, USA, Myanmar, Indonesia, Sudan,
Vietnam and Thailand. (FAO, 2013). Typically, groundnut is grown for
Lately, groundnut is also a feedstock
for oil production. Residues from groundnut is called SHELL. The shell
is mostly burnt in the fields, and are not efficiently used for energy.
Only small part of the groundnut shell is used as a compost and animal
feed. By applying fast pyrolysis technology to groundnut shell for
bio-oil production, the advantage is not only on fuel value aspect, but
also on the environmental aspect. Abnisa et al., 2011, studied
production of bio-oil via pyrolysis of palm shell in a fix-bed reactor
and find that the bio-oil yield was 46.4%wt at 500°c and contain high
water and oxygen.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
All over the world, increase in the
demand of fuel for I.C engines in day to day life,there is need for
alternative fuel energy sources such as vegetable oil, orange oil,
Cashew nut oil, and tyre pyrolysis etc. (Faith Demirbas M. 2007). Also,
due to increase in energy needs, especially for the environmental benign
energy, the biomass waste, as a renewable source of energy, is of great
potentiality. (Mazlam M. A. F et al. 2015). The amount of available
biomass residues for conversion into renewable fuels and value added
products is quite immense. Finding an environmental and sustainable
method for utilization of biomass waste has become a critical problem in
many agricultural countries. The biomass waste can be considered as a
zero waste net CO2 energy source because the CO2 generated by biomass
combustion can be absorbed and recycled from the atmosphere by
replanting harvested biomass.(Mikulcic H. et al. 2014)
The use of biomass thus makes no
contribution to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. (Mckendry P., Et
al. 2002). During the past decade, harnessing energy from biomass has
grown tremendously. (Kumar A. Et al.)
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of the research is pyrolysis of Groundnut shell.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the meaning of pyrolysis?
2. What is the effects of pyrolysis on Groundnut shell?
3. What are the end products of pyrolysis of groundnut shell?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Biowastes are converted into useful
pyrolysis oil by using different techniques such as hydrolysis,
gasification, liquefaction, dry combustion, pyrolysis, anaerobic
digestion, and bio photolysis. (Ganapathy Sundaram E. 2009). The
pyrolysis is one of the important method for production of oil from
biomass waste and it has been divided into there categories, which are
fast, slow and Vacuum pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical
process,it converts the biowaste into liquid, gas and solid prosucts.
(Dmitri A. 2011; Nirwan Sharif, 2012; Augustinova J.2013; Theodore
The pyrolysis has certain benefits
compared to the other methods like operating cost, low pressure, simple
procedure and higher efficiency. This produces bio-oil from the biomass.
The biomass is heated at higher temperature in the closed combustion
system at absence of oxygen to produce pyrolysis by-products such as
pyrogas, pyrolytic oil, and Char. (Nurun Nabi MD, 2011; Prakash R.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research focus on the pyrolysis of Groundnut shell.
1. Abnisa F., Wan Daud WMA, Sahu J.N.,
2011. Optimization and characterization studies on bio-oil production
from palm shell by pyrolysis using response surface methodology. Biomass
and bioenergy 35, 3604-3616.
2. Balat M., Balat M., Kertay E., Balat
H. 2009. Main routes for the thermo conversion of Biomass into fuels and
chemicals. Past 1: pyrolysis systems. Energy conversion and management
3. Bridgewater AV. 2012. Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading. Biomass and bioenergy 38, 68-94.
4. Dmitri A. Bulushev, Julian R.H. Ross.
Catalysis for conversion of Biomass to fuels via Pyrolysis and
gasification. A review Journal of catalysis today, 2011. Vol no 171 pp
5. Faith Demirbas M. and Mustafa Balat.
Biomass pyrolysis for liquid fuels and chemicals. A review journal of
scientific and industrial research 2007. Vol no 66, pp 797-804.
6. F.A.O. 2013. Food and Agriculture organization of the united nation for a World without hunger (FAOSTAT).
7. Fu P., Hu S. and Xiang J.et al. FTIR
study of pyrolysis products evolving from typical agricultural residues.
Journal of Analytical and applied pyrolysis. Vol 88, no 2, 2010 pp
8. Ganapathy Sandaram E. and Natarajan
E. Pyrolysis of Groundnut shell. An experiment investigation. The
journal of Engineering research 2009. Vol no 6 pp 33-39.
9. Mazlan M. A. F., Uemura Y. and Osman
N.B. et al. Fast pyrolysis of hardwood residues using a fixed bed drop
type pyrolyzer. Energy conversion and management. Vol 98, 2015, pp
10. Mckendry P., Energy production from
biomass (part 1). Overview of biomass, bioresource Technology. Vol 83,
no 1, 2002, pp 37-46.
11. Mikulcic H., Berg E. V. and
Vujanovie M. et al. Numerical study of co- firing pulverized coal and
biomass inside a cement calcined, waste management and Research. Vol 32
No7, 2014 pp 661-669.
12. Nuruu Nabi MD, Sultan Mahmud MD,
Monirujjaman MD and Shamim Akuten MD. Production of pyrolytic liquid
using grass as feed material. International conference on mechanical
13. Pattiya A., Suttibak S. 2012.
Influence of a glass wool hot vapour filter on yields and properties of
bio-oil derived from rapid pyrolysis of paddy residues. Bioresources
Technology 116. 107-113.
14. Kumar A., Wang I.J. and Dzenis Y.A.
et al. Thermo gravimetric characterization of corn stover as
gasification and pyrolysis feedstock. Biomass and bioenergy vol 32, no
5, 2008 pp 460-467.