In adults of Western societies the
positive relationship between blood pressure and body weight has often
been demonstrated both cross- sectionally and longitudinally. This
correlation is even stronger in children and early adulthood. In most
studies children, the association between age and blood pressure
disappear after controlling weight. Association must be differentiated
from causation. It has however been shown in several intervention
studies that treatment of obesity by weight loss decreases blood
pressure substantially both on hypertensive and normotensive subjects.
Although combining results from several intervention trials is
difficult. This is the only practical way to get an overall estimate of
the hypotensive response to be expected from weight reduction.
In randomised controlled intervention
studies, conducted in Obese hypertensive patients and reviewed in the
present meta- analysis, a decrease in body weight by 1kg resulted in
areduction of systolic and diastolic pressure by 1.2 and 1.0mmHg
respectively. Blood pressure generally decreased before normal weight
was achieved and remained reduced as long as there was no marked regain
in the body weight. Although a decrease in salt intake during dieting
may contribute to the blood pressure lowering, effect of weight
reduction, also other mechanism such as a reduction in plasma renin
Hypertension in Africa is a widespread
problem of immense economic importance because of its high prevalence in
urban areas, it frequent under-diagnosis and the severity of its
complications. (Opie and Yackoob, 2005). It is becoming a public health
emergency worldwide, especially in developing countries where studies
has projected an increase by 80% in the number of hypertensive patients
by the year 2025.
In Africa, more than 30million people
have hypertension. World Health Organization ( WHO) predicts that if
there is nothing done about it, by 2020 three quarters of all death in
Africa will be attributable to hypertension. (Kearney et al 2005). In
Cameroon, surveys on hypertension reported a prevalence varying from
12%-22% among those above age 15years in 1998 and an estimated
prevalence of 24% in 2003. (Mbanya et. al. 1998).
Several epidemiological studies have
shown that, blood pressure is strongly related to body weight, and that
control of obesity is a critical components of prevention and control of
hypertension. (Kummayinka, 1997).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Obesity increases the risk of the
development of hypertension. Therefore, over 60% of overweight people
have the tendency of developing hypertension. Treatment of hypertension
is known to refuse the risk of occurrence of cardiovascular illnesses.
Hence early detection, treatment and control of hypertension are the key
components of the integrated management of cardiovascular risks.
Research has shown that decrease in body weight reduces blood pressure
eventually and this helps to decrease the risk of developing
hypertension. Decrease in body weight may also help in preserving the
life of hypertensive patients.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of the study is to deduce the effect of body weight on blood pressure of hypertensive patients.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between body weight and blood pressure?
2. What is the effect of body weight on blood pressure?
3. What is the effect of obesity on blood pressure of hypertensive patients?
4. What is the effects of weight reduction on blood pressure of hypertensive patients?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The rate at which the percentage of
hypertensive patients keep increasing in Nigeria is very high. This
prompt many reserchers to work on the possible means or ways that
hypertension can be prevented. There is need to know the effect of body
weight on blood pressure of hypertensive patients. There is need to know
if decrease in body weight decreases blood pressure and if it helps to
decrease totally the risk of developing hypertension.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research focus on the effect of body weight on blood pressure of hypertensive patients.
1. Kearney P. M., Whelton M., Reynolds
K., Muntner P., Whelton P.K., He J.(2005). Global burden of
hypertension, Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 365; 217-223.
2. Kummayinka S.K. (1997). The impact of
obesity on hypertension management in Africa. American J. Health care
Poor undeserved. PP 352-355.
3. Mbanya J.C., Minkoulou E. M., Salaha
J. N., Balkaub B. (1998). The prevalence of hypertension in rural and
urban Cameroon. Int. J. Epidermiol 27; 181-185.
4. Opie L. H., Yackoob K.S. (2005). Hypertension in sub- Saharan African populations. Circulation 112; 3562-3568.