One of the most current concern with the
environment is the accumulated waste of non-degradable plastics. It
create a great expectation for more ecological and economically viable
alternative to minimise the environmental impact. Several materials from
agricultural resources have been used to produce renewable,
biodegradable and even more edible packaging. Cassava flour for example
is one of the most commonly used biopolymers as food packaging material
because it is non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible, low cost,
renewable and abundantly available in nature. The major component of
cassava flour is starch but it may content small amount of lipid,
protein, fiber and ash. The starch plays important role in bioplastic
forming. Today starch based bioplastics dominates 66% of the global
bioplastic market. Starch based bioplastic is made by gelatinizing
Cassava is extensively cultivated as an
annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy
tuberous root which is a major source of Carbohydrates. Starch is mainly
used as food but also readily converted chemically, physically and
biologically into many useful products. Starch is used to produce many
products such as food, paper, textiles, adhesives, beverages,
confectionery, pharmaceuticals and building materials. Casava starch has
many remarkable characteristics, including high paste viscosity, high
paste clarity and high freeze - thaw stability, which are advantages to
Bioplastics are plastics which all
carbon is derived from renewable resources. They may or may not be
biodegradable. Bioplastics contain both renewable and fossilfuel- based
Bioplastics are plastic that decomposes
naturally in the environment. This is achieved when microorganisms in
the environment metabolize and break down the structure of biodegradable
Biodegradable plastics are less harmful
to the environment than traditional or conventional plastics.
Bioplastics are made from natural materials such as Corn starch and
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.
Parkaging plays a significant part in
recent years as over 67 million tonnes of packaging waste resulting in
environmental concerns. This provokes many different processes, for
example, the using of additives such as filters, colourants and
plasticizers to produce polymers as packaging applications. (Song J. H.,
Murphy R. J., Narayan R., Davies G. B. H. 2009. Biodegradable and
Compostable alternativs to Conventional plastics. Phil. Trans. R. Soc.
B. 364. 2127 - 2139.)
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The major objectve is the Synthesis of biodegradable plastic of Cassava starch.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
~ What are biodegradable plastics?
~ What is significance of synthesis of biodegradable plastic?
~ Why is Cassava starch preferred for the synthesis of biodegradable plastic?
~ Why is bioplastics preferred to other plastics?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Environmental, economic, and safety
challenges have caused many scientists to invent biodegradable polymers
as a substitute for petrochemical based polymers. This biodegradable
polymers or bioplastics indicate more eco- friendly environment than the
conventional plastic which lead to environmental issue. (Reddy L. Reddy
S. Gupta A. 2013. Study of Bioplastics as green and sustainable
alternative to plastic. IJETAE 3. 75-81.)
The persistent problem in the
development of biodegradable plastics is the high cost of production
which leads to certain limitations. An alternative has been proposed by
using agriculture waste. (Jain R. Tiwari A. 2015. Biosynthesis of plant
friendly bioplastics using renewable carbon source. J. Environ Health
Sci. Eng. 13.)
Starch as biodegradable polymer becomes
reasonable material for the production of bioplastic because of its low
cost. (Mose B. R., Marangas M. 2011. A review on starch based
nanocomposites for bioplastic materials. J. Mat Sci Eng 1. 239- 245)
Therefore, production of bioplastics is
the breakdown innovation to solve the environmental issues by using
renewable and degradable natural resources in order to provide more
costly effective bioplastics.
1.6. SCOPE OF STUDY
The research focus on the synthesis of biodegradable plastic using Casava starch.
1. Jain R., Tiwari A. 2015. Biosynthesis
of plant friendly bioplastics using renewable carbon source. J.
Environ. Health Sci Eng 13.
2. Mose B. R, Marango S.M. 2011. A review on starch based nanocomposites for bioplastic materials. J.Mat Sci. Eng 1. 239-245.
3. Reddy L. Reddy S. Gupta A. 2013. Study of bioplastics as green and sustainable alternative to plastic. IJEJAE 3 76-81.
4. Song J. H., Murphy R.J., Narayan R.,
Davies G. B. H. 2009. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to
conventional plastics. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 364. 2127 - 2139.