1.1 Background to the Study
Legumes have historically been part of
expensive meals throughout the world as they have a major role to play
in the fight against malnutrition. It is therefore necessary that their
levels of consumption, which are already too low in a nber of developing
countries be increased. Plant proteins provide nearly 65% cereals and
10-15% legumes. Legumes serve as a source of non- processed protein for
rural and urban dwellers of the population especially in the poor
countries of the world and as a good source of fiber, resistant starch
and other nutrients. They are one of the least glycemic sources of
carbohydrates, because the starch is either slowly absorbed or resistant
(Olapade and Adetuyi,2007).
Bambara groundnut is an herbaceous,
intermediate, annual plant, with creeping stems at ground level. The
plant is leguminous and has numerous nitrogen fixing root nodules, the
plant support land care provision in Africa ( National Research Council,
2006). The leguminous plant is grown for its underground seeds. The
entire plants similar to the common peanut, being low, flat annual crop
with compound leaves of three leaflets. There is also an erect form like
the peanut, it forms pods and seeds on or just below the ground level
An intermediate product is a product
that might require further processing before it is sellable to the
ultimate consumer. This further processing might be done by the producer
or by another processor. Examples include sugar and flour (Wouters, et
al., 2012). It is also a product that has undergone a partial processing
and is use as raw material in a successive productive step.
Composite flour have also been developed
from cereals and tuber cropsixed with legumes flours. Thus has added to
household convenience because many people working outside of their
homes desire foods that can be easily prepared. Due to this changing
trends in consumer demands for more convenient products, research
studies have been geared towards developing innovative products from
legumes such as bambara nut flour (Olapade and Adetuyi, 2007) but not
spiced bbara but flour which would have bin more convenient for the
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is a common knowledge that legume
seeds generally require long cooking time for tenderization and period
varies from one legume to another. In the case of Bambara nut, it has
not been adequately exploited as human food because of constraints like
hard to cook phenomenon which is more than that of cowpea,strong beany
flavor, presence of anti-nutrients and poor dehulling and milling
characteristics (Alozie et al., 2009). It is hoped that good
intermediate obtained will help increase its utilization and also
prevent it from going into extinction (Nwosu et al., 2014).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the Study is to
determine the degradative changes of spiced composite flour from bambara
but and cowpea during storage. This is to be achieved through the
following specific objectives:
(i) Determination of proximate, functional properties of the spiced flour and
(ii) Determination of microbiological properties of the spiced flour.
1.4 Research Questions
(1) what is degradation?
(2) what is Bambara nut
(3) Why do we need to produce a spiced flour?
(4) what quantity of bambara nut and cowpea will be enough for the research?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study gives a clear insight into
the degradative changes of spiced composite flour produces from cowpea
and bambara nut during storage. It also shows how consumers can save
cooking time by adopting this product. This study will also increase it
utoliAtion and encourage farmers to plant it more.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research focuses on the
determination of degradative changes of spiced composite flour produces
from cowpea and Bambara nut during storage.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Only the cream color variety of bambara nut was procured for the research.