EFFECT OF MODIFICATION ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)

Type: Project Materials | Format: Ms Word | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 74 Pages | Chapters: 1-5 chapters | Price: ₦ 3,000.00

2,247 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@allprojectmaterials.com
EFFECT OF MODIFICATION ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)
ABSTRACT 
Starch from tigernut was isolated by wet milling process and physico-chemical properties of native and modified tigernut starches (cyperus esculetus) were analyzed. The carboxymethylated modified starch had highest amount of protein (0.45%) fibre (0.25%) and moisture content (14.96%) while natives had highest amount of fat (0.60%) ash (0.17%) starch (77.90%) and amylose 17.71%. the physicochemical analysis showed that native tigernut starch had the highest valve of total solid (86.60%) and PH (6.63) while hydrogen modified starch had highest amount of TTA (0.495%). The study therefore had an effect proximate and physicochemical.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                                    i
Certification                                                                                                                ii         
Dedication                                                                                                                  iii
Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv
Abstracts                                                                                                                     v
Table of contents                                                                                                        vi                                                                                                                  
CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1
1.1       Cypersus rotudus (coco-grass, purple nuts)                                                    2
1.2       Sources of starch                                                                                             2
1.3       Starch                                                                                                              3
1.4       Objective                                                                                                         4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Literature review                                                                                             5
2.1       Origin of tigernut                                                                                            5
2.2       Tigernut as food                                                                                              6
2.3       Tigernut oil                                                                                                      6
2.4       Tigernut as fishing bait                                                                                   7
2.5       Uses as flour                                                                                                   7
2.6       Tigernut as milk                                                                                              8
2.7       Health benefits from tigernut consumption                                                    8
2.8       Tigernuts plant and special care                                                                      9
2.9       Mineral content of tigernuts in Mg%                                                              12
2.10     History of starch                                                                                             12
2.11     Others uses of starch                                                                                       13
2.12     Starch as food                                                                                                             13
2.13     Physical chemical and functional of properties of tigernut starch                  14
2.14     Modified starches                                                                                           15
2.15     Functional uses                                                                                               15
2.16     Description                                                                                                      15 
CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Materials and methodology                                                                            16
3.1       Materials                                                                                                         16
3.2       Methodology                                                                                                  16
3.3       Proximate analysis                                                                                          17
3.4       Physicochemical                                                                                              18

 CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Result and discussion                                                                                                 22

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Conclusion                                                                                                      27
5.1       Recommendation                                                                                            27
References                                                                                                      28  


CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
Tigernut (cyperus esculentus) is an underutilized crop which belongs to the division magnolophyta, classliliosida, order – cyperales and family cyperaceae (family) and was found to be a cosmopholitan, perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant of her names of the plant are earth almond as well as yellow nut grass. (Codoemelan, 2003; Belewu and Belweu 2007).
Tigernut has been cultivated since early times for the its small tuberous rhizornes which are eaten raw or roasted used as hogfeed or pressed for its juice to make a severage. Non – drying oil (usually called chufa) is equally obtained from the rhizome. (umerie and emebli 1998).
The nut was found to be rich in myristic acid, oleic acid, lin oleic acid. In Egypt, it is used as a source of food, medicine and perfumes (De varies, 1991). Tigernut is commonly known as earth almond, chufa and chew – fa and Zulu nuts. It is known in Nigeria as Aya in Hausa, Ofio, Imumu in Yoruba and Akiausa in Igbo where three varieties (black, brown and yellow) are cultivated. Among these only two varieties because of its inherent properties like its bigger size, attractive colour and flesher.
The yellow variety also yields more milk upon extraction, contains lower fat and more protein and possess less anti – nutritional factors especially polyphenols
(Oladele and Aina, 2007). Tigernut can be eaten raw, roasted, dried, baked or be made into refreshing beverage called Horchata De Chufa or tigernuts.
Tigernut milk is a very nutritive and an energetic drink both for young and old. It is a tremendous high in starch, glucose and proteins. Also rich in minerals like potassium, phosphorus, vitamin E and C. Tigernut milk contain a large amount of oleic acid and is cardiac preventive. (Okezie and Bello, 1998). It defend the internal mechanisms and prevents both constipation and diarrhea. Tigers have long been recognized for their health benefits on the account of their high fibre and sugar contents.
Cyperus esculentus (Tigernuts) is a perennial growing to 0.9m (3ft) at a fast rate. It is hardly to zone B. the flowers are harmaphrodise (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by wind (Perera and Hoover 1998). Suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil suitable PH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.
Edible uses; tuber – raw, cooked or dried and ground into a powder (Juliano, 1992). They are also used in confectionary, a delicious nut – like flavour (Oladele and Aina, 2007) but rather chewy and with a tough skin. They taste best when dried. They can be cooked in barley water to give them a sweet flavour and then be used as a dessert nut. A refreshing beverage is made by mixing and ground tubers with water, cinnamon, sugar, vanilla and ice.
The ground up tuber can also be made into plant milk with water wheat and sugar. An edible oil is obtained from the tuber, it is considered to be a superior oil that compares favorably with olive oil. The roasted tubers are coffee substitute (Torrie, 1996). The base of the plant can be used in salad. This probably means the base of the leaf steams.

1.1       CYPERSUS ROTUNDUS (COCO – GRASS, PURPLE NUTS)
Sedge, red nut sedge, Khmer drunk is a species of sedge (cyperceae) native to African, southern and Central Europe north to France and Austria and Southern Asia. The word cyperus derives from the Greek “Kutepox” and rotundus is from Latin, meaning “round” (Singh, 2006).
The earliest attested from the word cyperus is the Mycenaean Greek ku-pa-ro, written in linear B syllabic. Cyperus rotundes is a perennial plant that may reach a high of up to 140 cm (55 inches). The names “nut” grass and nut sedge (shared with the related species cyerus esculentus) are derived from its tubers, that some what resemble nuts, powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consist of the types of molecules the linear and helical amyclose and the branched amylopectin (Evans and Haisemen, 1999).
Starch is processed to produce many of the sugar ion processed from. Dissolving starch in warm water gives wheat paste which can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent. The biggest industrial non – food use of starch is as adhesive in the paper making process. (Betaneur Ancona, 2008).
The word “starch” is derived from Middle English stretched; meaning to stiffen amyleom is Latin for starch from the Greek “amylon” which means “not ground at a mill”. The root amyl is used in biochemistry for several compound related to starch (Chopra et al, 1996)

1.3       SOURCES OF STARCH
Starch is the major carbohydrate reserves in plant tubers and seed endosperrm where it is found as granules each typically containing several million amylopection molecules accomplished by a much larger number of smaller amylase molecules. By far the largest source of starch is corn (maize) with other commonly used sources being wheat, potato, tapioca and rice. (Solomon and Olatunji, 2008). Amylopectin (without amylose) can be isolated from “waxy” maize starch where as amylose (without amlylopectin) is best isolated after specifically hydrolyzing the amylopectin with pullulanase Genetic modification of starch crops has recently led to the development of starches with improved and targeted functionality.
For the purpose of this project starch will be extracted from tigernuts for modification as one of the physical properties.
Starch is the most abundant storage reserve carbohydrate in plants. It is found in many different plant organs, including seeds, fruits tubers and roots, where it is used as a source of energy during periods of dormancy and re growth many of these starch – storing from example the grains of maize and rice or the tuber of cassava and potatoes and staple foods stuffs in the human diet starch is a versatile (FAO/WHO/UNO, 2005) and useful polymer not only because of the ease with which its physiochemical or enzyme modification and physical treatment (Oladele and Aina, 2007).
The very high fibre content combined with a delicious taste, make them ideal for healthy eating.
Typically, 100 g tigernuts contains 386 kcal (1635 kg) as 7% protein, 26% fats oils, 31% starch, 21% glucose. They contain  although botanically they have nothing to do with nuts. Is in other eyperaceae, the leaves spout in ranks of three from the base of the plant, around 2 – 20 cm long. The flower lead have 3.8 unequal rays. The fruit is a three angled achere (Odoemlan, 2003).
The root system of a young plant initially forms while; fleshing rhizomes, up to 25 mm in dimension in chains. Some rhizomes grow upward in the soul then form a bulb – like structure from which new shoots and roots, new rhizomes grow. Other rhizome grows horizontally or downward and form dark red – dish brown tubers or chains or tubers it prefer dry conditions, but will tolerate moist oils, it often grows in waste lands and in crop fields.

1.4       STARCH
Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in the human that and is contained in large amounts diet and is contained in large amount in such staple food. Foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice and cassava. (Takizawa and Silva, 2004)
Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odurless, 26% fibre of which 14% is non soluble and 12% soluble.

EFFECT OF MODIFICATION ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)

Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@allprojectmaterials.com with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

A Research proposal for effect of modification on the physical properties of tiger nut starch (imumu):
Reviews: A Review on effect of modification on the physical properties of tiger nut starch (imumu), effect, modification, physical project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Starch from tigernut was isolated by wet milling process and physico-chemical properties of native and modified tigernut starches (cyperus esculetus) were analyzed. The carboxymethylated modified starch had highest amount of protein (0.45%) fibre (0.25%) and moisture content (14.96%) while natives had highest amount of fat (0.60%) ash (0.17%) starch (77.90%) and amylose 17.71%. the physicochemical analysis showed that native tigernut starch had the highest valve of total solid (86.60%) and PH (6.63) while hydrogen modified starch had highest amount of TTA (0.495%). The study therefore had an effect proximate and physicochemical. .. food science and technology project topics

EFFECT OF MODIFICATION ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 74 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

Share Links

Download Post
Download Post

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

Do you need a writer for your academic work?