Starch from tigernut was isolated by wet milling process
and physico-chemical properties of native and modified tigernut
starches (cyperus esculetus) were analyzed. The carboxymethylated
modified starch had highest amount of protein (0.45%) fibre (0.25%) and
moisture content (14.96%) while natives had highest amount of fat
(0.60%) ash (0.17%) starch (77.90%) and amylose 17.71%. the
physicochemical analysis showed that native tigernut starch had the
highest valve of total solid (86.60%) and PH (6.63) while hydrogen
modified starch had highest amount of TTA (0.495%). The study therefore
had an effect proximate and physicochemical.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents
1.1 Cypersus rotudus (coco-grass, purple nuts) 2
1.2 Sources of starch
2.1 Origin of tigernut
2.2 Tigernut as food
2.3 Tigernut oil
2.4 Tigernut as fishing bait
2.5 Uses as flour
2.6 Tigernut as milk
2.7 Health benefits from tigernut consumption 8
2.8 Tigernuts plant and special care 9
2.9 Mineral content of tigernuts in Mg% 12
2.10 History of starch
2.11 Others uses of starch
2.12 Starch as food
2.13 Physical chemical and functional of properties of tigernut starch 14
2.14 Modified starches
2.15 Functional uses
3.0 Materials and methodology 16
3.3 Proximate analysis
4.0 Result and discussion
Tigernut (cyperus esculentus) is an underutilized crop
which belongs to the division magnolophyta, classliliosida, order –
cyperales and family cyperaceae (family) and was found to be a
cosmopholitan, perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant of
her names of the plant are earth almond as well as yellow nut grass.
(Codoemelan, 2003; Belewu and Belweu 2007).
Tigernut has been cultivated since early times for the its
small tuberous rhizornes which are eaten raw or roasted used as
hogfeed or pressed for its juice to make a severage. Non – drying oil
(usually called chufa) is equally obtained from the rhizome. (umerie
and emebli 1998).
The nut was found to be rich in myristic acid, oleic acid,
lin oleic acid. In Egypt, it is used as a source of food, medicine
and perfumes (De varies, 1991). Tigernut is commonly known as earth
almond, chufa and chew – fa and Zulu nuts. It is known in Nigeria as
Aya in Hausa, Ofio, Imumu in Yoruba and Akiausa in Igbo where three
varieties (black, brown and yellow) are cultivated. Among these only two
varieties because of its inherent properties like its bigger size,
attractive colour and flesher.
The yellow variety also yields more milk upon extraction,
contains lower fat and more protein and possess less anti – nutritional
factors especially polyphenols
(Oladele and Aina, 2007). Tigernut can be eaten raw,
roasted, dried, baked or be made into refreshing beverage called
Horchata De Chufa or tigernuts.
Tigernut milk is a very nutritive and an energetic drink
both for young and old. It is a tremendous high in starch, glucose and
proteins. Also rich in minerals like potassium, phosphorus, vitamin E
and C. Tigernut milk contain a large amount of oleic acid and is
cardiac preventive. (Okezie and Bello, 1998). It defend the internal
mechanisms and prevents both constipation and diarrhea. Tigers have
long been recognized for their health benefits on the account of their
high fibre and sugar contents.
Cyperus esculentus (Tigernuts) is a perennial growing to
0.9m (3ft) at a fast rate. It is hardly to zone B. the flowers are
harmaphrodise (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
wind (Perera and Hoover 1998). Suitable for light (sandy), medium
(loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil suitable
PH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in shade.
It prefers moist or wet soil.
Edible uses; tuber – raw, cooked or dried and ground into
a powder (Juliano, 1992). They are also used in confectionary, a
delicious nut – like flavour (Oladele and Aina, 2007) but rather chewy
and with a tough skin. They taste best when dried. They can be cooked
in barley water to give them a sweet flavour and then be used as a
dessert nut. A refreshing beverage is made by mixing and ground tubers
with water, cinnamon, sugar, vanilla and ice.
The ground up tuber can also be made into plant milk with
water wheat and sugar. An edible oil is obtained from the tuber, it is
considered to be a superior oil that compares favorably with olive oil.
The roasted tubers are coffee substitute (Torrie, 1996). The base of
the plant can be used in salad. This probably means the base of the
1.1 CYPERSUS ROTUNDUS (COCO – GRASS, PURPLE NUTS)
Sedge, red nut sedge, Khmer drunk is a species of sedge
(cyperceae) native to African, southern and Central Europe north to
France and Austria and Southern Asia. The word cyperus derives from
the Greek “Kutepox” and rotundus is from Latin, meaning “round” (Singh,
The earliest attested from the word cyperus is the
Mycenaean Greek ku-pa-ro, written in linear B syllabic. Cyperus rotundes
is a perennial plant that may reach a high of up to 140 cm (55
inches). The names “nut” grass and nut sedge (shared with the related
species cyerus esculentus) are derived from its tubers, that some what
resemble nuts, powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It
consist of the types of molecules the linear and helical amyclose and
the branched amylopectin (Evans and Haisemen, 1999).
Starch is processed to produce many of the sugar ion
processed from. Dissolving starch in warm water gives wheat paste which
can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent. The biggest
industrial non – food use of starch is as adhesive in the paper making
process. (Betaneur Ancona, 2008).
The word “starch” is derived from Middle English
stretched; meaning to stiffen amyleom is Latin for starch from the Greek
“amylon” which means “not ground at a mill”. The root amyl is used in
biochemistry for several compound related to starch (Chopra et al,
1.3 SOURCES OF STARCH
Starch is the major carbohydrate reserves in plant tubers
and seed endosperrm where it is found as granules each typically
containing several million amylopection molecules accomplished by a
much larger number of smaller amylase molecules. By far the largest
source of starch is corn (maize) with other commonly used sources being
wheat, potato, tapioca and rice. (Solomon and Olatunji, 2008).
Amylopectin (without amylose) can be isolated from “waxy” maize starch
where as amylose (without amlylopectin) is best isolated after
specifically hydrolyzing the amylopectin with pullulanase Genetic
modification of starch crops has recently led to the development of
starches with improved and targeted functionality.
For the purpose of this project starch will be extracted
from tigernuts for modification as one of the physical properties.
Starch is the most abundant storage reserve carbohydrate
in plants. It is found in many different plant organs, including seeds,
fruits tubers and roots, where it is used as a source of energy during
periods of dormancy and re growth many of these starch – storing from
example the grains of maize and rice or the tuber of cassava and
potatoes and staple foods stuffs in the human diet starch is a
versatile (FAO/WHO/UNO, 2005) and useful polymer not only because of
the ease with which its physiochemical or enzyme modification and
physical treatment (Oladele and Aina, 2007).
The very high fibre content combined with a delicious taste, make them ideal for healthy eating.
Typically, 100 g tigernuts contains 386 kcal (1635 kg) as
7% protein, 26% fats oils, 31% starch, 21% glucose. They contain
although botanically they have nothing to do with nuts. Is in other
eyperaceae, the leaves spout in ranks of three from the base of the
plant, around 2 – 20 cm long. The flower lead have 3.8 unequal rays.
The fruit is a three angled achere (Odoemlan, 2003).
The root system of a young plant initially forms while;
fleshing rhizomes, up to 25 mm in dimension in chains. Some rhizomes
grow upward in the soul then form a bulb – like structure from which
new shoots and roots, new rhizomes grow. Other rhizome grows
horizontally or downward and form dark red – dish brown tubers or
chains or tubers it prefer dry conditions, but will tolerate moist
oils, it often grows in waste lands and in crop fields.
Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large
number bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an
energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in the human that and
is contained in large amounts diet and is contained in large amount in
such staple food. Foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice and
cassava. (Takizawa and Silva, 2004)
Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odurless, 26% fibre of which 14% is non soluble and 12% soluble.