HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UYO TEACHING HOSPITAL)


HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UYO TEACHING HOSPITAL)

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HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UYO TEACHING HOSPITAL)

The  sustainable  management  of  Healthcare  Waste (HCW)  has  continued  to  generate  increasing  public interest  due  to  the  health  problems  associated  with exposure  of  human  beings  to  potentially  hazardous wastes  arising  from  healthcare  (Tudor  et  al.,  2005; Ferreira,  2003;  Da  Silver  et  al.,  2005).  Presently considerable  gap  exist  with  regard  to  the  assessment  of healthcare  waste  management  practices  particularly  in Nigeria  and  in  several  other  countries  in  sub  –  Saharan Africa.  The  nature  and  quantity  of  healthcare  waste generated  as  well  as  institutional  practices  with  regards  to sustainable      methods of healthcare waste management, including  waste  segregation  and  waste  recycling  are often  poorly  examined  and  documented  in  several countries  of  the  world  despite  the  health  risks  posed  by the  improper  handling  of  HCW  (Farzadika  et  al.,  2009; Oke,  2005).  It  is  also  of  serious  concern  that  the  level  of awareness,  particularly  of  health  workers  regarding healthcare  waste  has  not  been  adequately  documented. HCW  are  a  special  category  of  waste  because  they often  contain  materials  that  may  be  harmful  and  can cause  ill  health  to  those  exposed to it. The  World Health  Organization  estimates  that  each  year  there  are about  8  to  16  million  new  cases  of  Hepatitis  B  virus (HBV),  2.3  to  4.7  million  cases  of  Hepatitis  C  virus  (HCV) and  80,000  to  160,000  cases  of  human  immune deficiency  virus  (HIV)  due  to  unsafe  injections  and  mostly due  to  very  poor  waste  management  systems  (WHO, 1999;  Townend  and  Cheeseman,  2005).  In  developing countries  like  Nigeria,  where  many  health  concerns  are competing  for  limited  resources,  it  is  not  surprising  that the  management  of  healthcare  wastes  has  received  less attention  and  the  priority  it  deserves.  Unfortunately, practical  information  on  this  important  aspect  of healthcare  management  is  inadequate  and  research  on the  public  health  implications  of  inadequate  management of  healthcare  wastes  are  few  and  limited  in  scope. Although  reliable  records  of  the  quantity  and  nature  of healthcare  wastes  and  the  management  techniques  to adequately  dispose  of  these  wastes  has  remained  a challenge  in  many  developing  countries  of  the  world,  it  is believed  that  several  hundreds  of  tones  of  healthcare waste  are  deposited  openly  in  waste  dumps  and surrounding  environments,  often  alongside  with  nonhazardous  solid  waste  (Alagoz  and  Kocasay,  2007;  Abah and  Ohimain,  2010).  A  near  total  absence  of  institutional arrangements  for  HCW  in  Nigeria  has  been  reported  by others  (Coker  et  al.,  1998). Various  methodologies  have  been  used  all  over  the world  to  assess  and  quantify  HCW.    They  include  the  use of  physical  observation,  questionnaire  administration  and quantification  (Adegbita  et  al.,  2010;  Olubukola,  2009; Phengxay  et  al.,  2005),  as  well  as  checklists  (Townend and  Cheeseman,  2005)  and  private  and  public  records (Coker  et  al.,  2009).  Recent  studies  in  Nigeria  has estimated  waste  generation  of  between  0.562  to  0.670 kg/bed/day  (Longe  and  Williams,  2006)  and  as  high  as 1.68  kg/bed/day  (Olubunmi,  2009).    As  reported  in  the literature,  there  may  not  be  much  of  a  difference  in  the way  and  manner  wastes  generated  in  various  health  care institutions  are  managed  in  Nigeria.  A  good  example  is given  by  the  findings  of  the  study  in  Lagos  by  Olubukola which  reported  the  similarity  in  waste  data  and  HCW management  practices  in  two  General  hospitals,  characterized  by  a  lack  of  waste  minimization  or  waste  reduction strategies,  poor  waste  segregation  practices,  lack  of instructive  posters  on  waste  segregation  and  disposal  of HCW  with  general  waste  (Olubukola,  2009).

 

1.2 Problem Statement

The  mismanagement  of  healthcare  waste  poses  health risks  to  people  and  the  environment  by  contaminating  the air,  soil  and  water  resources.  Hospitals  and  healthcare units  are  supposed  to  safeguard  the  health  of  the community.  However,  healthcare  wastes  if  not  properly managed  can  pose  an  even  greater  threat  than  the original  diseases  themselves  (PATH,  2009).  There  are  a reasonable  range  of  treatment  technologies  available  for healthcare wastes that may be appropriate for third world  countries,  however,  it  is  pertinent  that  before  any  of these  options  are  adopted,  hospitals  and  medical facilities  will  need  to  assess  the  problem  and  put  forward a  management  strategy  that  is  suitable  to  their  economic circumstances  and  that  can  be  sustained  based  on  local technology.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is assessing waste management practice in Uyo Teaching Hospital. This is to be achieved through the following specific objectives:

1.  Assess  the  current  waste  management  practices  in terms  of  type  of  wastes  and  quantities  of  waste generated  in  the  various  units  of  a  tertiary  level healthcare  facility  and  the  waste  handling  and  disposal practices.

2.  Assess  the  level  of  awareness  of  health  workers regarding  HCW  management.

3.  Assess  the  level  of  compliance  with  recommended best  practices  for  the  sustainable  management  of healthcare  wastes  based  on  the  United  Nations Environmental  Programme/World  Health  Organization (UNEP/WHO,  2005)  and  the  Townend  and  Cheeseman 2005 guidelines.

 

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what is waste management?

(2) what are the existing waste management practice in Nigeria?

(3) how are waste managed in the health sector in Nigeria?

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

This  study helps to  identify  the gaps  in  current  practices  of  healthcare  waste  in  Nigeria compared  with  international  best  practice  and recommend  ways  of  bridging  this  gap  considering  the current  economic  and  technological  realities  in  the country.  Using  a  tertiary  health  institution  (Teaching Hospital)  in  Southern  Nigerian  state capital of Uyo as  a  case study, 

 

1.6 Scope

The research focus on Hospital Waste Management practices in Uyo Teaching Hospital.

 

References

Abah  SO,  Ohimain  EI  (2010).  Assessment  of  Dumpsite  Rehabilitation Potential  using  the  Integrated  Risk  Based  Approach:  A  case  study  of Eneka,  Nigeria.  World  Appl.  Sci.  J.,  8(4):  436-442.

Adegbita  MA,  Nwafor  SO,  Afon  A,  Abegunde  AA,  Bamise  CT  (2010). Assessment  of  dental  waste  management  in  a  Nigerian  tertiary hospital.  Waste.  manag.  Res.,  28:  769-777.

Alagoz  BAZ,  Kocasoy  G  (2007).  Treatment  and  disposal  alternatives  for health-care  wastes  in  developing  countries  –  A  case  study  in Istanbul,  Turkey.  Waste  Manag.  Res.,  25:  83-89.

Coker  AO,  Sikiru  KA,  Sridhar  MKC,  Sangodoyin  AY  (1999a). Characterization  and  Management  of  solid  hospital  wastes  in  Ibadan, Nigeria.  In  integrated  development  for  water  supply  and  sanitation: Proceedings  of  the  25th  Annual  Conference  of  Water,  Engineering and  Development  Centre,  (WEDC),  Edited  by  John  Pickford,  UK, November,  1999  Addis  Ababa,  Ethiopia  1999,  pp.  331-334.

Coker  (2009).  Medical  waste  management  in  Ibadan,  Nigeria: Obstacles  and  Prospects.  February  2009.  Waste  Manag.,  29(2):  804811.

Da  Silva  CE,  Hoppe  AE,  Ravanello  MM,  Mello  N  (2005).  Medical  waste management  in  the  south  of  Brazil.  Waste  Manage.,  25:  600-605

Farzadika  M,  Moradi  A,  Mohammadi  MS  (2009).  Hospital  Waste Management  status  in  Iran:  A  case  study  in  the  teaching  hospitals  of Iran  University  of  Medical  Sciences.  Waste  Manage.  Res.,  27:  384389. Ferreira  AP,  Veiga  MM  (2003).  Hospital  waste  operational  procedures: A  case  study  in  Brazil.  Waste  Manage.  Res.,  21:  377-382. Going  G  (2001).  A  Resource  kit  for  Pollution  Prevention  in Health center.

Oke  IA  (2008).  Management  of  immunization  solid  wastes  in  Kano state,  Nigeria.  Waste  Manage.,    28:  2512-2521.  

Olubukola  BO  (2009).  Comparative  Analysis  of  Health  Care  Waste Management  Practice  in  Two  General  Hospitals  in  Nigeria.  Available at  http://www.eco-web.com/edi/index.htm.  Accessed  January  28, 2011.

 PATH  (2009).  Achieving  effective  sharps  waste  management  in  GAVI host  countries.  A  proposed  approach  with  estimates  of  cost  2006 Available             at http://.www.Path.org/files/TS_ach_eff_swm.pdf. Accessed  27th  July  2009.

Phengxay  S,  Okumura  J,  Miyoshi  M,  Sakisaka  K,  Kuroiwa  C, Phengxay M (2005). Healthcare Waste Management in Lao PDR: A case study. Waste. Manage. Res., 23: 571-581.

HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UYO TEACHING HOSPITAL)

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The sustainable management of Healthcare Waste (HCW) has continued to generate increasing public interest due to the health problems associated with exposure of human beings to potentially hazardous wastes arising from healthcare (Tudor et al., 2005; Ferreira, 2003; Da Silver et al., 2005). Presently considerable gap exist with regard to the assessment of healthcare waste management practices particularly in Nigeria and in several other countries in sub – Saharan Africa. The nature and quantity of healthcare waste generated as well as institutional practices with regards to sustainable methods of healthcare waste management, including waste segregation and waste recycling are often poorly examined and documented in several countries of the world despite the health risks posed by the improper handling of HCW (Farzadika et al., 2009; Oke, 2005). .. estate management project topics

HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UYO TEACHING HOSPITAL)

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