1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Slums are home to the poorest of urban populations in Africa. The
houses inhabited by slum dwellers are mostly decrepit, overcrowded, in
neighborhoods that are prone to flooding and beset with poor sanitation
and shortage of potable water. Slums are easily formed in areas
experiencing rapid urbanization without commensurate increase in the
provision and maintenance of housing and infrastructure. Slums have been
conceptualized as a group of buildings or an area characterized by
overcrowding, deterioration, insanitary conditions, or absence of basic
and essential facilities like potable water, drainage system, schools,
health facilities, recreational grounds, post office, among others.
Slums generate spontaneously and are in some cases, a direct result of
the prevalence of poverty experienced by the inhabitants of cities
Slums, which are regarded as an element of urban
decay, also result from congestion in overcrowded cities where poor
immigrants seek to settle for just any available accommodation
irrespective of quality. The overwhelming negatives notwithstanding,
there are some positive aspects to slums. In recent years, some
environmentalists and organizations such as the United Nations
Population Fund suggested that despite the poor living conditions,
slums are positive both environmentally and socially. Because slums are
characterized by very high density of housing, its environmental
impact is smaller than that of dispersed rural communities.
Furthermore, the fertility rate of new slum dwellers is below the
replacement rate; this mitigates dangers associated with overpopulation
that results from manpower-intensive subsistence agriculture, and
frees up arable land for the nature, or more efficient industrialized
agriculture. Slum dwellers also appear to have vastly better
opportunities for getting jobs, starting small businesses and climbing
out of poverty than rural inhabitants (Akinyode, 1998). Nigeria is
ranked as one of the countries with high slum prevalence. The
proliferation of shanty dwellings, squatter settlements and slums in
most of our cities in Nigeria including the cross rivers state which is
the being focused on in this study.
However, it has been asserted that the presence
of slum increase the rate of crime in the area thereby affecting the
value of the residential property (Omole, 2010). The prevalence of slum
in Nigeria has significantly affected the value of residential
properties in the affected areas. This value is determined by the
prices of the residential property or by the value of rent per a period
time that is collected on them. However, the researcher will find out
the impact of slum on the value of residential property in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The process of urbanization which means specific changes in the
distribution and structure of population as well as in a size and
character of a settlement, their network or system, has many sided
relationship with slums formation. The rapid rate of urbanization
witnessed in the last century has produced more slums in the major
cities of the world, particularly in developing countries where
thousands of rural people move into the major cities at large
proportion. Presence have slum is believed to have been a major cause
of organized crime in the society. The researcher will investigate the
impact of slum on the value of residential properties in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the impact of slum on value of residential property in Cross Rivers State.
- To identify the causes of slum formation in cross rivers state.
- To examine the relationship between slum formation and value of residential properties
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the impact of slum on value of residential property in Cross Rivers State?
- What are the causes of slum formation in cross rivers state?
- What is the relationship between slum formation and value of residential properties?
HO: Formation of slum does not have impact of value of residential properties in Cross Rivers State.
HA: Formation of slum does have impact of value of residential properties in Cross Rivers State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- This study will educate stakeholders in housing sector,
urban and regional planning and estate management of the causes and
characteristics of slum and its effect on the rent and price which are
the determinant of the value of those residential properties.
- This research will also serve as a resource base to other
scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in
this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to
provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on the impact of slum on the value of residential
properties in Nigeria will cover the formation of slum in cross rivers
state and its effect on house rent, land rent, land purchase, security
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to
impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant
materials, literature or information and in the process of data
collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will
simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This
consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Urbanization: refers to specific changes in the structure and
distribution of urban population as well as in size and character of a
Slum: a squalid and overcrowded urban street or district inhabited by very poor people
Akinyode, B. F. “An appraisal of community improvement programmes
(CIP) in developing countries: A case study of World Bank Assisted
Urban Renewal Project in Ibadan”, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Ibadan,
Olotuah, A. O., Housing Quality in suburban areas: An empirical
study of Oba-Ile, Nigeria, Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, vol. 34, no. 2,
pp. 133 -137, 2006.
Omole, F. K., “An Assessment of Housing Condition and
Socio-Economic Life Styles of Slum Dwellers in Akure, Nigeria”,
Contemporary Management Research. Vol 6. No 4. Pp 273-290, 2010.