1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Housing is the permanently shelter for
human habitation. Because shelter is necessary to everyone, the problem
of providing adequate housing has long been a concern, no only of
individuals, but to government as well. Thus, the history of housing is
inseperable from the social, economic and political development of
All over the world, it is a widely
acknowledge fact that shelter is one of the most basic human needs
suffice it to say that inspite of its importance, it is one of the
problem that has been given the least attention in both urban and rural
areas of the country.
The genesis of housing problems in
Nigeria dated back to colonial government failed to evolve and
articulate housing programme beyond the Government Reserved Areas (GRA).
The colonial era has been a period of
self centeredness on the part of the colonial masters as far as social
housing in Nigeria was concerned. Studies have shown that the colonial
masters builts empires for themselves in the so- called Europeans
quaters and Government Reserved Areas (GRA). This was necesssitated
partly by the colonial masters quest for quiet residentials areas and
partly for thier desire for class and executive life. The colonial
masters never considered it neccessary to provide decent housing for
thier black counterparts, but were forced to do so when there was a
threat to thier lives following to outbreak of an epidemis. A case in
mind was that of Lagos Executives Development Board, which was
established in 1928 as a result of the destructive effect of the bubonic
plaque,and was aimed at the clearing the slums in Lagos, being the area
suspected to be epidemic by promoters. An attemptss was further made by
colonial master to provide housing for the civil servants under a plan
tagged “African Staff Housing Scheme” that was tagged to be facilitated
by Nigeria building society.
In post-colonial Era, sequel to Nigerian
Independence in 1960, emphasis was placed on five-yearly development
plan as a vehincle for economic growth, The first and second national
Development plan covering the period 1960-1970 did not give housing any
significant place until 1972 when during the extended second National
Development Plan, housing scheme under which government was to build
54000 housing unit by the end of 1979. Under third National Development
Plan, whixh covered the period of 1975 -1980 government took a giant
stride to address the National housing deficit of the country by
engaging in social housing provision.
During the period a rent panel was set
up to review the level in the country. This marked the first attempt
by government to recognize the housing problem of the less previledge
people of Nigeria who has lost all sense of dignity as well as
economicworth as citizen of an oil rich country. The forth National
Development plan, which covered the period 1980-1985 contained the most
significant policy that addressed that nations housing problem and an
overiding objectives of improving the overall quqntity and quality of
housing for all income, groups both in rural and urban especially.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.
The pooled effect of high population
upsurge and urbanization in a declining economy has thrown Nigeria into
serious housing problems, Ironically, the low-income groups who
constitute the majority in the society are the most affected by the
The problems of housing shortage grow
worse by the day in many devoloping nations including Nigeria.
Conceivably, a major trait of housing crisis notable in urban centres in
most developing nations is that of inadequate supply relative to demand
The shortage, in both quantitative and
qualitative terms, is more acute in urban centres. Omijinmi (2000)
observed that people that sleep in indecent in urban Nigeria are more
than people who sleep in decent houses; Thus, it is ascertive that there
is inadequacy in population in Nigeria. (Arayela 2003)
The causes of this dearth in housing are
numerous, High construction cost is found to be present in all
countries, albeit in varrying degree of significance ( Adedeji 2007).
Afolayan (1987) attributes the
high cost of construction rate in economy, high space and quality
standard adopted by designer and construction
1.3. AIM AND OBJECTIVES.
The aim of this study is to
assess and evaluate housing problems in Nigeria with special reference
Ibadan city, Oyo State.
The specific objectives for this study are:
1. To set out strategy for minimizing housing problems in Nigeria.
2. To identify ways of improving
housing by developing and sustaining the political will of government
for provision of housing for Ibadan people.
3. To ascertain the extents in which
strenthening all existing public institution s involve in housing
delivery at the state level will affect the housing delivery
4. To set out strategy of encouraging and promoting active participation of other tiers of government in housing delivery.
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The study findings will be of benefit
to the estate surveyor and valuer and property owners; as will reveal
the important strategies necessary for overcoming the challanges before
them.The industry stakeholders such as the client, Architect,Estate
Surveyor and Valuer, Builder and government will better understand the
constraints and also assist in mapping out strategies that will aid
The government and stakeholders
will be better informed through study recommendation of policy which
will assist the property managers and owner in boosting thier ability
and capacity to quality housing delivery proccess.
Moreover, the project research
can as well be a guide for the incoming student who want to research on
housing or any matter relating to housing.
1.5. SCOPE OF STUDY.
The scope of this study is based
on evaluating of urban housing problems in Ibadan of Oyo state. But
inview of the wide nature of the research topic, the study will focus
mainly on Ibadan metropolis.
1.6. LIMITATION OF STUDY.
In the course of this research
work, some factors hindered the free flow of work such as inadequate
finance, level of illetracy from the public, non release of vital
document or information in the respective local government and limited
time available for this research work and cost of preparation.
1.7. STUDY AREA.
Oyo State cover approximately an
area of 28,458 kilometers and is ranked 14th by size, it is bounded in
the south by Ogun state in the north by kwara state, in the west it is
partly bounded by Ogun state and partly by the republic of Benin, while
in the East by Osun State.
Oyo State contain a number of
natural features including the old national pack. The climate is
equitorial notably with dry and wet season with relatively high
humidity. The dry season last from November to march while the wet
starts from April and ends in October Average daily temperature ranges
between 25c(77.00 F) and 35 c (95.00 F) almost through the year.
Oyo State is located in the
south west region of Nigeria, latitude 8 degree and longitude 4 degree
East bisect state into four nearly equal parts. The people of oyo state
are Yoruba with common ancestor in oduduwa within the state however,
there are sub-ethnic group with distinct dialet peculiarities. The
people of Oyo state may be divided into five broad groups, viz Ibadan,
Ibarapas, Oyo Oke Ogun and Ogbomosos.
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS.
1. HOUSING: Housing
is a permanent shelter for human habitation, or house and other
building where people lives. OR Housing can means a dwelling that enders
a bundle of services which ranges from the units to bases from which
economic activities can be pursued.
Can be defined as the outcome of socia, economic and political
development that leads to urban concentration and growth of large
cities, changes in land use and transformation from rural to
metropolitan pattern of organization and governance.
3. URBAN AREA: Is
an area where sociol-economic activities take place and also identified
with such use like residential, ccommercial, individual, recreational
centre and many others.
4. SHELTER: Is a
structure that protects the occupants from environmental factors and
dangers. Shelter is universally acknowledged as one of the most basic
human needs, with a profound impact on the lifestyles, hapiness as well
as productivity of indidual.
5. PUBLIC HOUSING:
Is the housing embacked upon by the government or government
organization relating to housing e.g Federal Housing Authority(FHA) and
state Housing coporations. The aim of public involvement in the housing
is to make houses available to the masses at affordable cost. The
objective is contrary to that of private developers whose aim is to
6. PRIVATE HOUSING:
Can be defined as when private organization or an individual embacked
on housing programmes with the aim of making profit for investing in