The environment includes the air, land, water and
everything that it produces that sustains humans within. Humans in order to access these resources
both for their survival, development and to sustain their position in the
global market, has exploited these resources in a manner that has depreciated
the integrity of the environment by causing depletion of land fertility, global
warming of biodiversity, killing aquatic lives, deforestation, etc.This
pollution in Nigeria emanates mostly from the oil sector, from spillages caused
by process of oil exploitation and corroded pipes, and a serious and rampant
case is the incidence of oil theft.
Nigerian society has however, not ignored the developments of activities of oil
gangs, supported by communities heads, war lords and political sponsors, and,
has consequently set out some measures to battle these strain in the Nigeria
economy. These measures include
regulations such as the constitution federal republic of Nigeria 1999. The
criminal code, the national oil spill detection and response Agency
(established) Act, the petroleum industry bill, etc.
paper shall examine the challenge of oil theft in the Nigerian environment and
the efficacy of the measures set out to tackle the problem of crude oil theft.
paper shall conclude by recommending increase in local participation to secure
oil pipelines, government collaboration with international communities to
tackle oil theft, creation of job opportunities to engage jobless youth in
locale where these pipelines are laid, educating the joint task force on issues
of environmental pollution.
1.1.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
discovery of oil in Oloibiri a village in the Niger Delta by the Shell British
Petroleum in 1956, the Nigerian economy has not only boosted financially but
also have suffered the negative impact of oil activities going on in the
The Niger Delta region is blessed
with 606 oil fields of which 360 are on shore and 246 off shore. The oil industry in Nigeria contributes a
good percentage of Nigeria’s economy earnings; however it has also become a
source of loss in the Nigerian economy budget.
This is associated with the oil spills from the oil exploitation, and a
more reoccurring and disturbing issue, is the activities of the oil thieves.
Oil theft has become the order of
the day, with our daily national newspapers parading these issues and no
improvement in its reduction. The
activities of oil thieves have resulted in negative impacts in the environment,
the Nigerian economy (national budget) and have also posed insecurity threats.
Unfortunately, the perpetrators of
these crimes have monarchs and political backings and always get away with
these crimes. All of these activities have only degraded the environment of the
Laws/regulations and measures have
been set out by the federal government to reduce and discourage the activities
of the oil thieves. Regrettably, these
laws have been weakened by its enforcement strength, unemployment,
institutional weakness of the relevant agency, and bribery and corruption,
hence, the government must first deal with the root of the problem before
looking at the rest of it. This research
work attempts to examine the challenge of crude oil theft in the Nigerian
society and make recommendations.
OF THE STUDY
seeks to study the challenges of halting crude oil theft in the Niger delta
region and also access the environmental integrity in Nigeria.
1.3.SCOPE OF THE STUDY
of this study is centered on the assessment of environmental integrity in
Nigeria and the challenge of crude oil theft in the south southern part of
Nigeria making use of the environmental rights action as a case study.
1.4.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Ø To know the
challenges of crude oil theft so as to proffer solutions.
Ø To know the
impact of crude oil theft on environmental integrity in Nigeria.
Ø To study
those laws and strengthen the laws that prohibits environmental degradation.
Ø What are
the challenges of crude theft in Nigeria?
Ø Does crude
oil theft have a negative impact on environmental integrity?
Ø What are
the laws prohibiting environmental degradation and crude oil theft and can
these laws be strengthened for optimal benefits?
1.6. REASEARCH HYPOTHESIS
crude oil theft does not affect the environmental integrity of the Niger delta
crude oil theft affects the
environmental integrity of the Niger delta region.
the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives
THEFT:Mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons that is
refined into diesel, gasoline, heating oil, jet fuel, kerosene, and
literally thousands of other products called petrochemicals.
Crude oils are named according to their contents and origins,
and classified according to their per unit weight (specific
gravity). Heavier crudes yield more heat upon burning, but have
lower API gravity and market price in comparison to light
(or sweet) crudes.
of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular
geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. In ecology, thepopulation of a certain species in a certain area
is estimated using the Lincoln Index.