Water is the prerequisite of life, mankind
has settled along the Nile, the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Indus and the
Yangtze-Kiang (Marsha et al., 1999).
Since ancient times and well before the past millennium, people have sought
ways of dealing with water (their main commodity and primary source of
drinking, sanitation, irrigation, cultivation, transportation and communication).
Two major water supplies are surface water and ground water and are the water
resources for readily available water for human consumption. Surface water
includes pounds, streams, rivers, oceans and lakes. Pure water rarely occur in
nature due to water capacity to dissolve and absorb surrounding materials.
Surface water is the most readily available, yet the most polluted as a result
of anthropogenic, but happily, controllable activities (David, 2006). In Nigeria, surface water pollution is being
associated with surface runoff, industrial effluent, cold-room effluent,
domestic waste and abattoir effluent. In this study, emphasis is placed on effluent
generated from abattoir processes.
The abattoir industry is an important
component of the livestock industry providing domestic meat supply to over 150
million people and employment opportunities for teaming population in Nigeria (Nafarnda
et al; 2012). However, majority of
the activities going on in most of the abattoir present in Nigeria are never
monitored for regulation purposes. Majority of the abattoir in Nigeria are not developed
and facilities for the treatment of abattoir effluents are lacking. Potential
health risks from waterborne pathogens can exist in water polluted by abattoir
effluents, runoff from feedlots, dairy farms, grazed pastures, fallow and sod
amended with poultry litter, grassland treated with dairy manure, and sewage
sludge treated land. Such contamination of water bodies from abattoir wastes
could constitute significant environmental and public health hazards (Nafarnda et al, 2012).In Southwestern Nigeria
several pathogenic species of bacteria in abattoir effluent have been
identified. These species among others include Staphylococcus sp.,
Streptococcus sp., in harsh environmental condition depicting the unfriendly
nature of untreated abattoir effluent to the surrounding environment and human
health (Coker et al., 2001). The main
wastes originate from killing, hide removal or de-hairing, paunch handling, rendering,
trimming, processing and clean up operations. The wastes generated from
slaughter house usually constitute blood, grease, inorganic and organic solids,
salts and chemical added during processing operations (Raheem et al). On the average,
majority of the abattoir in Nigeria are sited near a stream, natural pond or
river, like the one present in Agbarho, Ugheli north, Delta state.
Environmental issues resulting from improper
management practices responsible for the pollution of the aquatic environment
with various forms of contaminant has increased in geometric proportion over
the last four decades with concomitant increase in water borne diseases
especially typhoid, diarrhea and dysentery. Abattoirs are generally known all over
the world to pollute the environment either directly or indirectly from their
various processes. It is observed that in Nigeria, many abattoirs dispose their
effluents directly into streams and rivers without any form of pre-treatment
and the slaughtered meat is washed by the same water (Adelegan, 2002).
abattoir on daily basis produces several gallons of blood, and intestinal
contents and tissues introducing them into the environment including the
Agbarho River. On a visit to the Agbarho abattoir, during a quick survey around
the abattoir, neither holding tank nor waste treatment system/facility was observed
which is obviously an indication that effluent and other solid wastes generated
from the abattoir are been dumped/discharged indiscriminately into the
surrounding. The abattoir was said to have been existence for years now, which
implies that the water body has been receiving abattoir effluent for years.
Note: to avoid ambiguity, abattoir may be used
interchangeably with slaughter house, also wastewater may also be used instead
Abattoirs are generally known all over the
world to pollute the environment either directly or indirectly from their
various processes hence water quality assessment is essential to the
Agbarho River so as to ascertain the level of impact of the abattoir effluent periodically
discharged to it. As it receives discharged waste water from the Agbarho
abattoir. considering implicated certain bacteria species in abattoir effluent
pollution, not ignoring other processes involved in meet and hide processing,
the analysis will deal with certain physiochemical and biological parameter of
the river water.
Cases of water borne diseases especially
typhoid, diarrhea and dysentery has
resulted as a result of contact with polluted water. It is therefore expedient
to carry out such analysis on the river for awareness purpose, as the users of
the river exploit it for economic and recreational purpose without the full
knowledge of the danger it may pose to human health.
Until now in Nigeria, many abattoirs (Agbarho
Slaughterhouse included) dispose their effluents indiscriminately into streams
and river body and without any form of treatment and mismanage various their
waste. Assumption is being made that publications on effect of abattoir on
water quality would pilot the awakening of effective and sound regulation on
wastewater treatment and abattoir waste management.
In overview, water quality usually degenerate
as a result of indiscriminate and uncontrolled effluent discharge from
abattoirs, accompanied with water borne diseases with no sign of governmental
mitigation plan. However there has not been any study on the relevance of the
abattoir activities on Agbarho River.
The study seeks to ascertain the effect of
Agbarho slaughterhouse effluent on the Agbarho river water with specific
objectives which include:
a) To check the effect
of the abattoir effluent/waste on the River water quality (if it influences any change in the BOD, DO,
COD, pH, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Total solids and some other physiochemical and
biological properties of the river water).
b) To check for the
level of impact if there is any.
establish that there is a significant relationship between abattoir effluent
and river water quality.
d) To create awareness
on various adverse impacts that may result from the discharge of untreated
Aligning with the objectives stated above the
below questions are made:
effect does abattoir effluent has on water quality?
extent has the release of the abattoir effluent into the Agbarho River impacted
III. What relationship does the effluent has with
the water quality?
IV. What information is
needed in the discharge of effluent?
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
study will be of great benefit to a number of groups in Nigeria. Government
agencies especially the Delta State Environmental Protection Agency, rank
amongst the top beneficiary of this study
set of interest group that will benefit from the findings of this research will
be the community and society where the abattoir is located, as the study stands
to keep them informed.
last set of beneficiary of this study is the international community,
particularly in the area of urgent significance in the uniformity and
standardization of the reporting formats for entities involved in regulation of
abattoir industries or the likes.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS.
The area of this study covers a section of
the Agbarho River around the effluent discharge point. The study is
specifically focused on analysis of water quality around the discharge point as
defined by some physiochemical and biological parameters.
The research is not without limitation as
there are bound to be variation in water quality over time due to the continuous
flow of the river and other activities.
River is an important economic river in Delta state as various socio-economic
activities including vehicle washing and fishing are possible through the
river. The river also serve for the purpose of sand resources as it
accommodates several dredging activities at various points. People living
within the vicinity draw water from the river and even swim in it. The river
originates from Orho a hinterland in Warri and stretches down westward to Uvwie
Local Government Area of the state where it empties with its creeks into the
Atlantic Ocean. The river receives wastes from municipal dumps and from abattoir sited along its course. Although,
there are more than one abattoirs in Agbarho, Oghara abattoir is implicated in
this study due to its strategic location right by the course of the Agbarho
River and also because it is the major abattoir which supplies about 65% of the
meat for the town residence and other nearby communities.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERM
is usually used to refer to meat packing
industry, large industry involving the slaughtering,
processing, and distribution of cattle, sheep, and hogs. Abattoir operations
are meant to recover the edible portions of slaughtered animals for human
consumption (Fearon et al., 2014).It also refers to
places where animals are killed for their meet. It
is one of the most important industries in Nigeria as it serves as meet
resources and also supplies certain raw materials to several manufacturing
industries. These industries usually generate waste in form of solid or water
(i.e. effluent/wastewater, water
that has been used, as for washing, flushing, or in manufacturing processes).
that may eventually contaminate water system if not well taken care of. The
aftermath effect of the contamination is usually deterioration in the water
quality. Water quality refers to the
physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of
the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic
species and or to any human need or purposes. Such parameters as the one
categorized below define water quality.
the overall water body temperature of an aquatic system is altered, an aquatic community shift can be expected.
value: pH is an indicator
of the existence of biological life as most of them thrive in a quite narrow
and critical pH range.
Color: is measured in (ptco)/(Lu). It is the
characteristics spectrum band of a given water body. Color is vital as most
water users, be it domestic or industrial, usually prefer colorless water. Determination of color can help in estimated
costs related to discoloration of the water.
Turbidity: is expressed as the amount of suspended matter in Mg/L or
parts per million (PPM).
conductivity can be defined as the total amount of dissolved salts present in
Oxygen (DO): DO is the
concentrated amount of oxygen (O2) in dissolved form. It is measured
in Mg/L or (PPM). DO is essential for aquatic life. A low DO (less
than 2 Mg/L) would indicate poor water quality and thus would have difficulty
in sustaining many sensitive aquatic lives.
Dissolved Solids (TDS): in
water consist of inorganic salts and dissolved materials. In ambient
conditions, these compounds are present in proportions that create a balanced
solution. If there are additional inputs of dissolved solids to the system, the
balance is altered and detrimental effects may be seen. Inputs include both
natural and anthropogenic source.
Oxygen Demand (BOD): BOD is
a measure of organic pollution to both waste and surface water. High BOD is an
indication of poor water quality. For this tree plantation project, any
discharge of waste into the waterways would affect the water quality and thus
Nitrate nitrogen: The growth of macrophytes and phytoplankton is stimulated
principally by nutrients such as nitrates. Many bodies of freshwater are
currently experiencing influxes of nitrogen and phosphorus from outside
sources. The increasing concentration of available phosphorus allows plants to
assimilate more nitrogen before the phosphorus is depleted. Thus, if sufficient
phosphorus is available, high concentrations of nitrates will lead to
phytoplankton (algae) and macrophyte
(aquatic plant) production. This is
mostly due to the usage of fertilizers.
Oil & Grease: To check if there is any indiscriminate
dumping of waste oil or poor management of oily waste within the site.
Total Coliform Count and Faecal Coliform
Count: These tests use coliform bacteria as indicator
organisms. The presence of these
indicative organisms is evidence that the water has been polluted with faeces
of humans or other warm-blooded animals.