1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria, located in West Africa, has a
total land area of 983,213 square kilometers, the estimated population
is over 150 million people (World Bank Population Figures) yielding an
average density of more than 120 persons per square kilometers.
Industrial activities, in its modern
forms, are relatively recent in the history of Nigeria’s economic
development. During the pre-colonial period, Nigeria featured
considerable craft industry as modern factory activity was then not
known. With the advent of the Second World War and its aftermath, the
economy of Nigeria changed tremendously and there were demands from
Europe for industrial raw material. With time, due to the low
technological base, industrial development took on the assembly-type
pattern of import substitution (Wikipedia, 2015). However, political
self determination since 1960 did provide the opportunity for improving
on its import substitution strategy as well as developing its potentials
for real industrial take off through capital goods industry. Prior to
the discovery of Crude Oil in Oloibiri, Rivers State in 1956,
agriculture (before 1970) was the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. The
Oil boom witnessed in the 1970’s led to a tremendous increase in
industrial activities. With financial resources available from oil and
no development policy, unguided urbanization and industrialization took
place. As desirable and necessary as this development was, it became an
albatross not of itself but because of the lack of appropriate
environmental protection policies to guide it. The result was the
indiscriminate silting of industries, deforestation and desertification,
disregarding the need for environment concern. The process technology
of some of these industries often resulted in unacceptable levels of
toxic and dangerous industrial wastes and effluent emissions. These
culminated in the degradation of the environment and devastating
ecological and human disasters over the last three decades there has
been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed
to environmental pollution in particular, the global burden of disease.
The World Health Organization (WHO)
estimates about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due
to prolonged exposure to environment pollution. Most of these
environment-related diseases are however not easily detected and may be
acquired during childhood and manifested later in adulthood.
Industry plays an important role in the
process of economic development in the world. It enhances the economics
welfare of citizens and supplies the material goods they consume. The
way in which society will develop in the future is largely dependent on
how the growth which industry generates is distributed. Industry is also
a major consumer of natural resources and a major contributor to the
overall pollution load. Based on OECD (Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development) estimates, it accounts for about one-third
of global energy consumption of their member states and for about
10percent of the total water withdrawal. The relative contribution to
the total pollution is obliviously higher for industry-related
pollutants. The individual sector generates both traditional pollutants
(e.g., Organic substances, sulfur dioxide, particulates and nutrients)
and newly-recognized pollutants (e.g., specific toxic substance). The
industrial sector includes a number of diverse activities created by
Thus, industry has particular
environmental responsibilities in terms of such factors as plant
location and design, environmental pollution, vibration and noise
controls, waste disposal, occupational health and safety aspects, and
long range planning.
Generally, the pollutants from
industries are divided into three categories namely gas, solid and
water. There are also some other pollutants forms such as noise and
odor. Therefore there is need for government to enact and implement
necessary environmental laws to control the issues of environmental
pollution and this can be done by putting necessary environmental
pollution enforcement structure in place to curb the spate of
environmental pollution in Nigeria.
www.Projectclue.com/environmental science. (2016)
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Irrespective of the numerous
environmental laws enacted to protect the environment, environmental
degradation has continued unabated. Air and water pollution from
industrial activities are still common place in Nigeria, especially in
the urban areas.
Air and water pollution has also continued unabated irrespective of the Nigerian government’s directive to reduce its effect.
It travels from state dispersing
pollutant in rivers and atmosphere. This study however wants to identify
the problems of environment pollution on industrial equipment and
proffer solution to the issue.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this project is to
provide a sound understanding of air water pollution and their cause to
enable a well informed strategy to controlling them in the industry.
The objective of this study will be achieved by:
- Introducing the concept of pollution
- Classifying the various forms of pollution
- Introducing the air and water pollution control practices right from local approach to the use of modern techniques.
- Understanding the methods of controlling air and water pollution.
- Explaining different environmental media
- Providing the basic knowledge of living with pollution free environment.
- Discuss the impact of pollutants on the environment and human health.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT WORK
v To emphasize the link between environment pollution and public health in an urban setting
v To identify the issues of environmental pollution in Nigeria
v To analyze the impact of environmental pollution in Nigeria
v To assist public decision makers by
providing some qualitative measure of the national benefits of
controlling air and water pollution.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the issues of environmental pollution in Nigeria?
2. What is the impact of environmental pollution in Nigeria?
3. What are the solutions to the challenges of environmental pollution in Nigeria?
HO: Environmental pollution is not a major challenge in Nigerian Industries
HA: Environmental pollution is a major challenge in Nigerian Industries
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE/JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of the study/this research work is of greater importance due to the following reasons.
- The outcome of the research will educate the general public on the
issues and the adverse effect of environmental pollution in Nigeria
- The findings from this study are going to necessitate measures that
will lead to demand for improved implementation of environment pollution
control laws in Nigeria.
- The outcome of the research will enlighten and gear management of industries on measure to abate future pollution.
- This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars
and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this
field subsequently, if applied it will go to an extent to provide new
explanation to the topic.
In conclusion, it is hoped that the
study shall be of importance to existing and other upcoming
organizations in general so as to improve operational efficiency and
pollution control, through the various pollution abating discoveries and
recommendations contained therein.
1.8 LOCATION OF THE STUDY
This research study was conducted in KWARA STATE WATER COOPERATION; 7UP BOTTLING COMPANY, LUBCON NIGERIA LIMITED
.The choice of these establishments as case studies was derived from
the fact that companies are highly organized private investment in
This study on environmental pollution in
Nigeria will cover cases of environment pollution ranging from air and
water pollution with factories and the need to demonstrate ability to
consistently provide pollution free operations applying regulatory
In achieving our objective of this
research, the research, would be exploratory and analytical. The scope
of the study will be on how the companies adopt pollution control and
how is it a strategic decision of the company.
1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY
v Financial constraint:
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in
searching for the relevant materials, literature or information and in
the process of data collection (observation, questionnaire and
v Time constraint: The
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with others
academics work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for
the research work.
v Other constraints:
Such as limited personal capabilities, transportation barriers, and
environmental barriers altogether limit the coverage of the study.
In addition, reliance on previous works on this subject tends to what can be adduced to self or personal innovation.
Other limitation that must be recognized
in this work arises essentially from the un co-operative attitude of
some respondents which emanated from organizational rules.
Despites all these, it is believed that
if this study achieves the desired objectives, the effort put therein
would have been justified.
1.9.2 SOURCES OF DATA
The sources of data are divided into two
categories; the data which were collected from the field or study area
are called the primary data. Primary data were collected by the
interviewing the people of study area, by making survey on a topic of
Questionnaire is one of the major
primary sources of information. As it is well known that, gathering of
information is very essential in any research work as used in this
project work to substantiate the information provided from the companies
used as case studies. This questionnaire was designed to determine how
pollution controls are being utilized in our industrial settings.
The secondary data are the data which
were collected from books, journals, previous research paper and other
document which contains the topic related to the study. Ayoola and