1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
In the beginning, entrepreneurship
started when people produced more products than they needed, as such,
they had to exchange these surpluses. For instance, if a blacksmith
produced more hoes than he needed, he exchanges the surplus he had with
what he had not but needed; maybe he needed some yams or goat etc. he
would look for someone who needed his products to exchange with. By this
way, producers came to realize that they can concentrate in their areas
of production to produce more and then exchange with what they needed.
So through this exchange of products, entrepreneurship started. A
typical Nigerian entrepreneur is a self made man who might be said to
have strong will to succeed, he might engage the services of others
like; friends, mates, in-laws etc. to help him in his work or
production. Through this way, Nigerians in the olden days were engaged
Entrepreneurship, as an emerging field
of study and as an area of human endeavour, has received increasing
interest of researchers, academicians and policy makers the world over.
Entrepreneurship is seen as an effective means not only of combating
unemployment, poverty and under-development in the developing nations,
but also as a strategy for rapid economic development in both developed
and developing nations (Schumpeter, 1934; Harper, 1991; Morris &
Lewis, 1991; Hamilton, 2000; Clausen, 2006; Praag & Versloot, 2007).
Economy of the 1970s – 2000 in the West, characterized by reliance on
big business and mass production, has given way to a so-called
entrepreneurial economy, where knowledge-driven goods and services are
more flexibly provided by smaller creative class (Naude 2011). Naude
(2011) notice impressive growth in the emerging economies, notably
Brazil, Russia, India and China, and deduced that it has been driven by
innovative entrepreneurial revolution. Based on general view
entrepreneural development is the key to poverty eradication, employment
generation and rapid economic development.
Moreover,studies by UNIDO Nigeria, 2012
show that Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) has the propensity
to drive the Nigerian Economy, and data reveal that there are currently
over 17 million MSMEs employing over 31 million Nigerians. MSMEs
account for over 80% of enterprises that employ about 75 % of the
Nigeria’s total workforce. Therefore formulating and effectively
implementing MSMEs friendly policies represents innovative ways of
building the capacity to engage in entrepreneurial activities and
creating job opportunities thus, playing a central and invaluable role
in helping Nigeria realize its quantity advantage. In addition, the 2012
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) has empirically identified
Nigeria as one of the most entrepreneurial countries in the world. The
study showed that 35 out of every 100 Nigerians (over a third) are
engaged in some kind of entrepreneurial activity or the other. It is
therefore imperative at this point in time to critically evaluate not
just the principles of entrepreneurship but the practice and its crucial
role in fostering economic growth and development in a developing
economy like Nigeria.
Entrepreneurship is not synonymous with
small business. Certainly, small firms are an out-standing vehicle for
individuals to channel their entrepreneurial ambitions. The small firm
is an extension of the individual in charge (Lumpkin and Dess 1996).
However, entrepreneurship is not restricted to persons starting or
operating an (innovative) small firm. Enterprising individuals in large
firms, the so-called ‘intrapreneurs’ or ‘corporate entrepreneurs’,
undertake entrepreneural actions as well.
Nowadays, most unemployed youth in
Nigeria go into soap making business instead of waiting for a white
collar job. Soap making business is cheap and easy to start, which make
it very easy for many youth to venture into it. Many house wife do learn
how to make soap just for their home use, which reduce the cost of
money spent on soap in a month.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
In Nigeria, start up of small scale
businesses such as soap making, among unemployed youths has contribute
immensely to solving the problem of unemployment in Nigeria. Therefore
the need arise to study the effect of start up business on
entrepreneural development in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The objective of the study is to examine the effect of startup business; soap making on entrepreneural development in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
What is the meaning of entrepreneur?
What is 'soap making'?
What is the effect of start up business on entrepreneural development in Nigeria?
1.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
This study will examine the importance
of startup business in Nigeria, and also their effect on entrepreneural
development in Nigeria. Encouragement of Startup businesses in Nigeria
has great effect on reduction of unemployment rate in Nigeria and will
inturn reduce poverty rate.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
The study focus the effects of startup business on entrepreneural development in Nigeria.
. Abimbola, O. H. & Agboola, G.
M. (2011). Environmental factors and entrepreneurship development in
Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(4), 166-176.
Retrieved from www-jsd-africa.com.
. Adejumo, G. (2001). Indigenous
entrepreneurship development in Nigeria: Characteristics, problems and
prospects. Advances in Management: Journal of Department of Business
Administration, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, 2(1),112-122.
. Agboli, M. & Ukaegbu, C. C.
(2006). Business environment and entrepreneurial activity in Nigeria:
Implications for industrial development. Journal of Modern African
Studies. 44(1), 1-30.
. Akanji, O. O. (2001). Microfinance
as strategy for poverty reduction. Central Bank of Nigeria Economic and
Financial Review, 39(4), 111-134.
. Alvarez, S. A. & Busenitz, L.
W. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. Journal of
Management, 27, 755-775.
. Anderson, A. & Miller, C.
(2003). Class matters: Human and social capital in the entrepreneurial
process. Journal of Social Economics, 32, 17-36.
. Ariyo, D. (2005). Small firms are the backbone of Nigerian economy.
. Clausen, T. H. (2006). Who
identifies and exploits entrepreneurial opportunities? Centre for
Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
 Hamilton, B. H. (2000). Does
entrepreneurship pay? An empirical analysis of the returns to
self-employment. Journal of Political Economy, 108(3), 601-631.
 Harper, M. (1991). The role of enterprise in poor countries. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 15(4), 7-11.
. Holtz-Eakin, D., Joulfaian, D.
& Hosen, H. S. (1994). Sticking it out: Entrepreneurial survival and
liquidity constraints. Journal of Political Economy, 102(1). Retrieved
. Hurst, E. & Lusardi, A.
(2004). Liquidity constraints, household wealth and entrepreneurship.
Journal of Political Economy, 112(2), 319-347.
. IMF (2013). World economic outlook report.
. Morris, M. H. & Lewis, P. S.
(1991), Entrepreneurship as a significant factor in social quality of
life. Journal of Business Research, 23(1), 21-36.
. Naude, W. (2011). Entrepreneurship
and economic development. United Nations University. Retrieved from
. Oyelola, O. T., Ajiboshin, I, O.,
Raimi, L., Raheem, S. & Igwe, C. N. (2013). Entrepreneurship for
sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable
Development Studies. 2(2), 197-215. Retrieved from
. Praag, C. M. V. & Versloot, P.
H. (2007). What is the value of entrepreneurship? IZA Discussion Paper
No. 3014. Retrieved from ftp.iza.org/dp3014pdf
. Reynolds, P. D. (2000). National
panel study of U.S. business start-ups. Background and methodology.
Retrieved from http://projects.isr.umich.edu/PSED/
. Risenetworks (2013). Youth
unemployment in Nigeria: Shocking statistics, facts and why the future
may not be so bright after all.
. Thaddeus, E. (2012). Perspectives:
Entrepreneurship development and growth of enterprises in Nigeria.
Entrepreneurial Practice Review 2(2), 31-35.
. UNDP (2006). World development report.
 Yusuf, I. A. (2011). Rising gross domestic product, rising poverty.
 Lumpkin, G T & G G Dess.
(1996). Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking
It to Performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 135-72.
 Naude, W. (2013). “Entrepreneurship
and Economic Development: Theory, Evidence and Policy”. Discussion
Paper. Institute for the Study of Labor, Germany