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OIL AND GAS ACCOUNTING: PRACTICE, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL NIGERIA PLC)

OIL AND GAS ACCOUNTING: PRACTICE, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL NIGERIA PLC)


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OIL AND GAS ACCOUNTING: PRACTICE, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL NIGERIA PLC)

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON OIL AND GAS ACCOUNTING: PRACTICE, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL NIGERIA PLC)


ABSTRACT

        The research provides a conceptual descriptive and analytical study of oil and gas accounting, in 2012, when the International Financial Reporting Standard was adopted, exploration companies in Nigeria prepared their financial statement in line with the statement of accounting standards (accounting in the petroleum industry) upstream activities. This is between not without challenges. Therefore the research seeks to investigate the nature of oil and gas accounting, its challenges and proper possible solution.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

        Accounting regulatory bodies usually formulate industry specific standards when an industry has peculiar characteristic of accounting for banks and non-bank financial institutions.

The oil and gas industry is one of such industries that has specific accounting standards. This can be attributed to its peculiarity interms of high capital  requirement, earning volatility, regulation, type of business ownership, taxation, non-correlation between the amount of investment made and returns obtained (Wright and Hallun et al, 2008)  and high sensitive to risk         price risk and foreign exchange risk.

        Up and 2012 when the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) was adopted by exploration companies in Nigeria, Nigerian companies in the upstream sector prepared their financial statement in line with the statement accounting standard 14 (accounting in the petroleum industry; upstream activities and SAS 17 (accounting in the petroleum industry) formulated by the Nigerian Accounting Standard Board.

        By its adoption of IFRS, Nigeria joined over 100 countries that either use or have adopted t he accounting guidelines as stipulated by the International Accounting Standard Board (IASB). This will ensure harmony and easy comparison of financial statements. This is particularly useful in the oil and gas industry considering that it is one of the most global industries. The adoption of a common accounting framework also widens access to investment opportunities.

        IFRS 6 applies to expenditure incurred by an entity in connection with the search for mineral resources. The standard divides upstream activities into two groups namely: exploration and evaluation activities and development activities. The standard under paragraph 9 discusses exploration and evaluation activities. Examples of expenditure that can be categorized as exploration and evaluation according to paragraph 9 are acquisition of right to explore, topographical, geological, geochemical and geophysical studies, exploratory drilling, trenching, sampling cost, costs incurred in trying to evaluate the technical feasibility and commercial violability of extracting resources. These cost are capitalized and classified as tangible or intangible (IFRS 2011). Developing activities involves developing the results from extractive activities. This usually requires huge amount and paragraph 10 of (IFRS) 6 states that these expenditures should be categorized as intangible assets and treated as per the guideline provided in IAS 38 (intangible assets).

        Accounting for the upstream sector is quite controversial and companies may choose from either the successful efforts method or full cost method.

        Successful effort is a method of accounting for petroleum exploration and development expenditures that permits capitalization of expenditures only a successful projects while expenditures in unsuccessful wells are expensed. A drilling effort is classified as successful if it results in the extraction of economically recoverable oil and gas and classified as unsuccessful if it results I a dry hole.

        On the other hand, the full cost method allows for the capitalization and amortization of all exploration and development expenditures i.e. both successful and unsuccessful efforts.

        The main difference between the two accounting method is that only cost in proven wells are capitalized in the successful effort method while every cost is capitalized under the full cost method.

        The research, therefore, seeks to investigate the nature of oil and gas accounting practice, its challenges and solutions excerpts Ejiroghene E. (2013) Accounting for oil and gas Reserve; implication for investors.

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The research provides a conceptual descriptive and analytical study of oil and gas accounting, in 2012, when the International Financial Reporting Standard was adopted, exploration companies in Nigeria prepared their financial statement in line with the statement of accounting standards (accounting in the petroleum industry) upstream activities. This is between not without challenges. Therefore the research seeks to investigate the nature of oil and gas accounting, its challenges and proper possible solution... accounting project topics

OIL AND GAS ACCOUNTING: PRACTICE, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL NIGERIA PLC)

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