1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
is an important aspect of economic development. When citizens of a country are
educated that is a key to social, economic and political stability (Ojiambo,
2009). The Kenya government has considerably invested in education which is
evidenced by the free primary education and the free day secondary education (Ojiambo,
2009). The main purpose of education is to transmit wisdom and knowledge from
one generation to another, this prepares young people to become members of the
society, maintaining it and developing it. Education also has positive
influence on population, health nutrition and also increases value and
efficiency for labour (Kising‟u, 2012). The
unemployment problems facing the country can best be addressed through
equipping the young people with skills that can lead to self employment, the
curriculum should equip the learners with entrepreneural skills, and this
indicates the importance of Commerce/ marketing in the school curriculum.
means all the activities which start from production and end at consumption.
The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and
technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally.
It is an exchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale between
different countries (foreign commerce) or between different parts of the same
country (domestic commerce) trade; business. Also, it's activities that relate
to the buying and selling of goods and services. Marketing deals with the
management process through which goods and services from producer to the
like any other developing country has witnessed series of political instability
with obvious effects on educational policies at federal and state government
levels. This gradually laid the foundation of fallen standard in education at
secondary school level, which caused differences in academic achievement of
students. In the quest of survival, the nation evolvement service for
socio-economic and educational measures has not improved the socio-economic
status of families influencing students’ academic achievement in Nigeria.
According to Olotu (1994), in the quest of finding survival, the nation has
evolved service of socio-economic and educational measures and policies such as
Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP), Austerity Measures, Universal Basic Education
(UBE) and devaluation of the Naira. These measures have not improved the
socio-economic and educational status of families in the country. They have
rather increased their sufferings and widened the socio-economic gap between
the years, assessments of factors that influence academic achievement in senior
secondary physics educatio student have attracted the interest and concern of
many researchers, teachers, parents and national leaders. It is a well known
fact that student achievement in academic activities vary, some physics
students perform better than the other, many discouraged students feel that the
length of their student career would be limited by their finances, rather than
by their academic ability, this affects them psychologically which affects
their academic achievement eventually. In some cases, particularly males, they
are easily affected by peer group pressure to whom secondary education may be
teaching and learning is affected by some factors, such as admission points,
social economic status, family and school background. Geiser and Santelices
(2007), Acato (2006), and Swart (1999) all argue that admission points which
are a reflection of the previous performance influence future learning ability
of students. Considine and Zappala (2002) argue that families where the parents
are advantaged socially, educationally and economically foster a high level of
achievement in their children. Sociocultural approaches to the process of
learning are increasingly being applied by educationalists. Sociocultural
theorists argue that individuals cannot be considered in isolation from their
social and historical context and therefore it is necessary to look at the
society and the developments occurring at a given time. Two principal agencies,
the family and the school powerfully shape children’s learning
experiences. The influence of these two
agencies is constrained by the wider social and cultural systems into which
they are embedded. There is great
diversity in cultural backgrounds, social conditions, family arrangements and
school organization. These two factors
have been going through constant modifications. The relationship between family
socio-economic status and the learning outcomes of students is well established
in sociological research. While there is disagreement over how best to measure
social factors, most studies indicate that students from low social status
families do not perform as well as they potentially could at school compared to
students from socially high background (Graetz, 1995). Most studies, however,
compare students from across all social backgrounds to reach the conclusion
that low social status adversely affects a range of teaching and learning
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
In Nigeria, Education is seen as an
instrument for National Development. The National Policy on Education (NPE
1998) stated categorically, that Education is the most important instrument of
change in the intellectual and social outlook that Nigerians must have to
proceed in their educational revolution. The National Policy on Education also
identified as a one of the national educational goals "the inculcation of
the right of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the
society". These are indeed very laudable goals. However, the extent to
which they are achievable depends on the relevance and contents of various
subjects taught in schools and the socio-cultural needs of Nigeria as well as
how effectively those subjects are being taught. This paper opines that basic
commerce is a very important subject and could be used for promoting the
knowledge of senior secondary school students if effectively taught. The
problem of students’ drawback in the commerce especially at a higher level
calls for a research into the area, at the grassroots level (primary school
level). There is therefore need for a research to investigate the factors that
affect teaching and learning of commerce in senior secondary schools in Abuja
and to other states of the country. This will identify such factors that affect
teaching of commerce in senior secondary schools and lead to recommendation
that will improve the situation.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
objective of the study is to research the social factors affecting effective
teaching and learning of Commerce/Marketing in senior secondary schools in
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
is the definition of Commerce?
are factors affecting effective teaching and learning of Commerce/ marketing in
senior secondary school, Abuja?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
study will help in identifying and examining social factors affecting effective
teaching and learning of Commerce/ marketing in senior secondary school, Abuja.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
study focus on social factors affecting effective teaching and learning of
Commerce/ marketing in senior secondary school, Abuja.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.
study is limited to the teaching and learning of Commerce/ marketing in Senior
secondary school, Abuja.
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