STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OPOBO/NKORO LGA OF RIVER STATE.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
Over a century ago, Nigeria was an agro-economy-based nation. Then
Nigerian economy was sustained through agricultural produce such as
cocoa, ground nut, palm produce. Agriculture then seemed sustaining
because everybody was involved, everybody had interest and it appeared
to be everybody’s major source of family sustenance. There were less
cases of unemployment due to less interest or crazy of white collar
jobs. Families were not complaining of hunger as there were food surplus
in most homes. The problem then was inadequate money (cash) to educate
young ones, procure quality health facilities and enhanced standard of
living in line with the developed nation. Egbule (2004) defines
agriculture as a process of training learners in the process of
agricultural productivity as well as the techniques for teaching of
Agricultural science is therefore designed for inculcation of the
necessary skills for the practice of agriculture for effective
citizenship and contribution to food security for national
sustainability. That is why the FRN (1994) outlines the seven major
objectives of teaching and learning of agricultural science to reflect
1. ability to stimulate students interest in agriculture.
2. Ability to enable students acquire basic knowledge of agriculture.
3. Ability to enable students integrate knowledge with skills in agriculture.
4. Ability to expose students to opportunities in the field of agriculture
5. Ability to prepare students for further studies in agriculture.
Attainment of the above objectives depends on teachers’ factors and
pedagogical approaches. Agricultural science teachers are trained and
groomed from teacher preparation institutions for quality impact of
agricultural skills, knowledge attitudes and values for self-reliance,
promotion of agriculture and food security in their future lives. It is
therefore the duty of this group of teachers to; stimulate and sustain
student’s interest in agriculture, enable students acquire basic
knowledge and practical skills in agriculture, enable students integrate
knowledge with skills in Agriculture, prepare and expose students for
occupation. Attainment of the goals and objectives of agricultural
science depends on effectiveness of teaching and learning of
Furthermore, Agricultural education programs provide a curriculum
aimed at helping individuals gain knowledge and skills in agriculture.
Moore (1994) studied the historical teaching me±odologies in
agricultural education and found three major teaching approaches in
agriculture: formal steps, project approach, and problem solving
approach. For this reason, the role of teachers and their teaching
strategies are never ending topics in all educational settings. (Martin
et al., 1986; Miller et al., 1984).
Recently there has been much concern expressed about quality teaching
in educational institutions, while industries in the rapidly changing
society have been concerned about the well educated person. These
concems have led to the issue of teaching strategies and their
effectiveness in secondary agriculture education (Kahler, 1995; Martin,
1995; Moore, 1994; Rollins, 1989). As agricultural educators, the
responsibility is to ensure adequate teaching and learning as necessary
to meet the changing needs of the industry and the values of society
(Melion, 1995, p. 5). According to Carkhuff (1981), teaching is the
opportunity to help others to live their lives fully, which means we
help to give to our learners' lives through their physical, emotional,
intellectual and social growth. Anderson (1994) concluded that student
outcomes may heavily depend on the teacher's instructional planning,
teaching method selection, and having a variety of learning activities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Agricultural science taught at basic and secondary schools has not
been able to transform the citizens and the nation adequately. Graduates
still lack basic vocational and entrepreneurial skills expected to be
acquired from agricultural science. Graduates still wallow about in
search of white collar jobs instead of becoming self reliant and
employers of labour. It also appear to be due to inadequate teaching and
learning process on the part of the agricultural science teachers in
Nigerian secondary schools. Therefore, this study will investigate
effective instructional Materials to improve teaching and learning of
agricultural science in secondary schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river
1.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The main objective of the study is to research and implement the
strategies for improving instructional delivery in the teaching and
learning of agricultural science in Junior secondary school in
Opobo/Nkoro LGA of River State.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
1. What is agricultural science?
2. What are the problems teacher face in delivering effective teaching and learning agricultural science?
3. How can teaching and learning of agricultural science be improved
in Junior secondary schools, Opobo/Nkoro LGA of River state?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
This study will help in delivering effective teaching and learning of
agricultural science in Junior secondary school in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of
River State.This study will also help the nation in attaining future
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
The study focus on the strategy for effective delivery of teaching
and Learning of agricultural science in Junior secondary school in
Opobo/Nkoro local government area of River state.
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