1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
The concept of sex education and its
introduction in junior secondary schools has witnessed much
controversies and misconception by many teachers, parents, the society
and students. The concept of sex education which is sometimes called
sexuality education or sex and relationship education attracts a
plethora of definitions from different people. According to Frimpong
(2010), sex education is “the systematic attempt to promote the healthy
awareness in the individual on matters of his/her sexual development,
functioning, behavior and attitudes through direct teaching”.
Similarly, the Sexuality Information and
Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) in Njoku (2008), sees
sex education as “a planned process of education that fosters the
acquisition of factual information, the formation of positive attitudes,
beliefs and values as well as the development of skills to cope with
the biological, psychological, socio-cultural, and spiritual aspects of
human sexuality’. From these definitions, it can be deduced that sex
education is a deliberate, planned and organized learning experience in
the aspect of human sexuality which is intended to equip young people
with the requisite skills and adequate knowledge which will enable them
to develop positive attitude on sex related issues as well as to take
rational decisions in line with societal expectations. It is important
to note that sex education was not just incorporated into social studies
for knowledge acquisition but to help young people develop attitudes,
values, goals and practices that are based on sound knowledge which will
enable them to express their sexual and mating impulses in a manner
that is socially and ethically acceptable as well as personally
satisfying (Abdu 2006 and Okafor in Bozimo and Ikwumelu, 1999).The
concept of sex education in Nigerian schools is not a new concept in
Nigeria. Adepoju (2005) and Abdu (2006) postulated that traditional form
of sex education and family life education has been in existence where
kinship systems, age grade and coming – of – age ceremonies or
initiation ceremonies where the youths were tutored about manhood and
womanhood. It was purely biological and cultural, while various methods
of contraceptives were just kept at the domain of married people and
kept secret. Many young people were kept in the dark as they were not
opportuned to be properly educated on family life and sex education
because their training was on “dos and don’ts”.
Traditionally, sex education was to be
given to every child and adolescents by his/her immediate family but
these practice has been eroded by the influence of modernization,
western civilization, and collapsing family life; thereby leaving the
young ones at the mercy of the wider society and other socializing
agents who may not give accurate information that can assist the young
ones in their transition to adulthood. This vacuum in the life of
adolescents is what the school needed to the fill through the teaching
of sex education in social students. The term sex goes beyond the realm
of sex organs, instructions and act of sex organs as individuals are
made to believe to make a breakthrough in the life of human relation
among and between sex partners. Sex education is the instruction about
sex and human sexuality. Sex is an important effect on the human life of
an individual and almost everyone in the society including children
wants to know about it. Traditionally, children are not supposed to
receive information about sex at all. They many a time, learn about sex
through their friends, books, television, pornographic films either from
the magazines or internets and sex movies. Correct and factual
information should be given to teenagers about the sudden development in
their bodies. During this period, the girls develop breast,
menstruation starts, pelvic borne broadens these starts at the age of
eleven to twelve years and in the boys between fourteen to fifteen
years. The sexual organs mature the widening of the chest and
enlargement of the lynx which causes breaking of the voice.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Ignorance of sex and its associated
problems is prevalent in and among secondary school students. The life
of students are shattered with the passing of incorrect information
among themselves, they get misled by others. Today, the problems
resulting from the lack of sex education to our youth are numerous. They
are unwanted pregnancies, increase abortion, high incidence of sexually
transmitted diseases and high rates of sexual promiscuity. All these
have led to inability to concentrate, poor school performance,
deterioration of mental health of students, high rate of school drop
outs, increase in illiteracy and over population. Consequently, the
educational opportunity of Nigeria youth is greatly affected and this
posses a great loss to the society. Religious bodies view sex education
as premature, dangerous and likely to lead to sexual promiscuity. To
behavioural scientists, the introduction of sex education is proper.
However, despite the increasing sexual problems, parents and schools are
still not providing teenagers with proper knowledge of sex. Teachers
need to understand that it is essential to educate their students about
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The main objective of the study is the perception of secondary school students on sex education.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is sex education?
2. What is the effects of sex education on secondary school Students?
3. What is the importance of sex education?
4. What is the role of secondary school teachers and students in sex education?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
This study will give correct and factual
information and understanding of students towards the teaching of sex
education. It will enlighten our students and prevent them from
developing a sense of guilt, horror, disgust or fear of sex especially
when they perform sex act of the right time for right purpose and with
the right person. It will enable students to develop self-respect and
self-control with due consideration. Developmental tasks of becoming
responsible men and women in future.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
This study focus on the perception of secondary school students on sex education.
1. Abdu A. 2006. Sex education school.
The counselors' role in A. Iyela and Fu. Audi (Eds). Social for higher
education students Kaduna; Sunjo publishing and co.
2. Adepoju A. 2005. Sexuality Education
in Nigeria. Evolution, challenges and prospects. African regional
sexuality Resource center. Understanding Human sexuality Seminar, series
3. Bazimo G. and Ikwumelu S. N. 1999. Issues in social students Education in Nigeria, Owerri. Whyte and whyte publishers.
4. Frimpong S.O. 2010. Adolescents
attitude towards sex education. A study of senior high school in Kumasi
metropolis. Ife psychologia.
5. Njoku C. 2008. Preparing Nigeria
Youths for responsible family life through sex education programmes in
P.A. Areo and R.C. Odo (eds). Social studies for nation building, Zaria:
Ahmadu Bello University Press ltd.