1.1 Background to the Study
Socialization which is the process of
learning and inculcating the correct and acceptable ways of living in a
particular society especially by children, is a practical exercise which
are imbibed more unconsciously than consciously. The child learns
faster when the teaching process engages all his senses rather than just
one or at most two. Here we are looking at the use of instructional
materials in teaching and learning of social studies with a focus on
However, it is worthy of note that the
instructional materials referred to and treated herein aren’t tools like
pencils and pens and the white board, etc. We are referring, rather, to
the graphical rendition of lessons, the literatures on lessons that
accompany the teacher’s classes, the pictorial and life imitation of
themes and so on. For Angela Janovsky, instructional materials are:
the tools used in educational lessons,
which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a
teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional
She enumerates, among other things,
graphic organizers, traditional resources and teacher-made resources as
the different major types of instructional materials.
The goal of social studies especially
at primary level is to inculcate in the kids acceptable cultural codes
to live by. Put this way, it is not difficult, then , to see that the
methods of teaching social studies should mirror the learning process
that is unconscious so that what is learnt would unconsciously dictate
the child’s behaviours and social choices without the child actively
thinking about it.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teaching and learning are two different
things. They are informed by different things and engage its subjects
and objects differently. The more this relations of teaching and
learning are closing in gap and one smoothly completing the other, the
more productive both are seeing that the one aims at giving while the
other aims at receiving completely.
However, often times the teaching
methods doesn’t align with the learning methods and since it is the job
of the former to fashion itself after the needs and pace of the latter,
teachers have to device different workable instructional materials that
will suit the student’s academic needs.
This problem, the demand for additional
teaching tools, is what this present research work has set out to
engage. But its is going to be doing so in regards to the teaching of
1.3 Research Questions
1.3.1 What are the instructional materials that work best at the primary level
1.3.2 What are the instructional materials that work best in teaching social studies particular
1.3.3 What percentage of students learning performance is owing to the adequate use of instructional materials.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this research work is to
analyze and discuss at length the use of instructional materials in the
teaching of social studies to primary school pupils. In order to achieve
this the following are the objectives that the present writer aims at
1.4.1 to provide the different
categories of instructional materials there are in order to see clearly
how teachers can employ them and enumerate in details different methods
teachers can make use.
1.4.2 We also hope to, while
carrying out this studies, to study the different topographical factors
that influences the various methods and materials that work best for
each child in the inculcation of acceptable social behaviours.
1.4.3 Lastly, this research hopes
to distinguish the instructional materials that are specific to social
studies away from learning in general and also the ones for the primary
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research work aims at shedding
light on the complexities of teaching social studies, making formatters
gain better insight on the traditional instructional resources and how
to update them to use for the teaching of social studies.
1.6 Research Hypothesis
This work is predicated upon the
assumption that physical tools like rulers and pencils and boards are
different from what we generally refer to as instructional materials.
Again, it assumes that the teaching, and by implication, the learning
process relies greatly on instructional materials especially in the
teaching and learning of social studies in primary school level.
1.7 Scope of the Study
While the object here namely
instructional materials are relevant in teaching and learning up to
university level where graphs are employed in lecturing, thus study will
concentrate itself on the primary school level. The present writer
recognizes that will greatly inform the areas that this research
On the scope of the study, the use of
instructional materials studied here will focus on this use as it
pertains to the subject of social studies.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Many things conspired to pose as
limitations to this study namely time frame, space and access to primary
and secondary case studies.
1.9 Definition of Terms
These are all the tools employed by the
teacher in order to ease the learning process and make it possible. This
includes everything from textbooks which are designed in a way that the
child can read and understand and further practice with.
This is a primary and secondary subject
whose curriculum is designed to teach the child acceptable social
behaviours and the consequences of going contrary to these codes of