IMPACT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON CAREER CHOICE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
research was performed to examine the influence of family on the career choice
of secondary school students. In analyzing the data collected for the purpose
of carrying out this research, the statistical tool known as the Pearson
Product Moment Correlation (PPC) and the statistics were used. The use of
sample percentage was employed, and Tables were used in presenting the data. Primary and secondary data were also
The study was conducted in Edo state,
Nigeria and carried out in 5 secondary schools selected through the simple
random sampling technique in Egor local government area of Edo State.
Out of the entire population in these
five secondary schools chosen randomly, 50 students were selected at random
from each of the five schools chosen for this survey amounting to a total of
250 students used for the study.
A pilot study was conducted on ten
students randomly chosen from the secondary schools chosen to pre-test the
efficacy of the questionnaire. The feedback received was used in the final draft
which enhances it reliability.
from the study showed that the family has a strong influence on the career
choice of secondary school students.
However, this study will help parents
and guardians to know and ascertain the nature of influence they have on their
wards when it comes to career choice.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE
Family is a place in
which children learn to interpret realities (Wary and Passman, 1996) parents
serve as significant interpreters to children for information about the world
and children ability (Hall, Kelly, Hansen and Vulwein, 1996) family influence
is an important force in preparing students for their role as workers. Young
people form their attitude about work and career as a result of interaction
with the family. Family background provides the basis on which a student’s
career planning and decision making evolves. However, within each family, the
level of involvement can very positively or negatively.
factor found to be associated with career choice includes parents
socio-economic status (SES), their level of education and biogenetics factor
such as physical size, gender, ability and temperament, Panic and Jepson
(1992), in a study on adolescent vocational development reported that had the
most effect on education plans and occupational aspiration was education.
Mortime et al (1992) also reported that parents with post secondary education
tend to pass along its importance in their children a finding reported by other
studies. Montgomery (1992) votes that students talented in mathematics viewed
their career choice as reflective on the interest that stem from early family
influence and educational opportunities.
De Piddeo (1990)
however, points out that the lower level of parents education can retard
adolescents career choice. Being born to parents with limited education and
income reduces the likelihood of going to college or achieving a professionally
and occupational goals and essentially predetermined the child’s likely career
choice. Family income is another aspect of family background that influences
the career choice of a student. Mortimer et al (1992) one reason for this may
be that family with limited economic resources may tend to direct children
first the older children in the family giving less hope and encouragement to
the younger children in the family. It is therefore understandable that the
self efficacy of students with respect to career opportunities is linked to the
economic support they can expect from their parents. Another family background
factor found to be associated with career choice include the parents
spiritual/health parents who love Jesus and want the best for their children
will urge their children to pursue a career that will bring them joy in the
future. Thus proverbs 22:6 admonished parents to pay attention to their
children while the children in turn should prove themselves obedient (Ephesians
1.2 STATEMENT OF
The standard of education in Nigeria today is gradually falling thus leading to
lots of arrangements amongst scholars civil servants, educational planners etc
as to what is the immediate and remote causes of the failure and the factors
hindering high standard of education, while we may blame governments, teachers,
and children, the family which students comes from leave much to be desired. It
is important to note that we cannot exonerate the family that a child came from
when talking about the students choice of career in secondary school. Family
background factors found to have influence the students choice of career is
based on parents socio-economic status, parents educational level, parents love
for Jesus and family size and parents temperament.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to
examine the impact of family background on occupational choice of secondary
school students. Specific objectives of the study are:
To ascertain the degree in which socio-economic status of parents influence the
career choice of students in secondary school.
examine the relationship between the level of education of parents and the
career choice of students in secondary schools
determine if the size of a family have any influence on the choice of career of
secondary school students.
examine the relationship between living condition at family and choice of
career of students.
find out if the ability and temperament of parents affect the choice of career
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In order to deal with the influence of family background on the career choice
of secondary school students the following questions were asked:
To what degree does the socio-economic status of parents influence the career
choice of students in secondary school?
Is there any relationship between the level of education of parents and the
career choice of students in secondary schools?
Does the size of a family have any influence on the choice of career of
secondary school students?
Is there any relationship between living condition at family and choice of
career of students?
To what extent does the ability and temperament of parents affect the choice of
career of students?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF
Students succeed in school when certain factors are put in place or put under
control, some of these includes ensuring that the child feeds well at family,
get enough rest, does his family work has his work checked by both his teachers
and parents, has his school materials, gets adequate encouragement from their
parents, useful information should be given the child to guide futures
generation of choice of career. In the light of the above, the students will
assist parents to have insight into the behavior and needs of their children.
The study intends to reveal the factors that impedes or enhance the choice of
students in secondary schools.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE
This study is restricted to secondary schools in Esan Central local government
area of Edo State. In the realization of similar condition facing most students
in other secondary schools in Edo State the survey shall focus on students in
their first year and final year of studies.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
a unit comprising of husband, wife and children.
FAMILY SIZE: The
number of people in the family.
This includes monogamy and may be nuclear or extended family.
HOME ENVIRONMENT: This
refers to parental experience and aspirations for children, objects and
material conditions in the home for comfort and also specific behavioral
processes conducive to learning.
EDUCATIONAL UPBRINGING: This
refers to education of children and how they perform in academics when
subjected to test or examination.
This term is used for social processes in which one achieve social competence
and individual growth, carried on in a selected, controlled sitting which can
be institutionalized as a school or college.
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: Person’s
trade, vocation or principal means of earning living.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: This
refers to position of recognition which one finds him in the society. Such a
position may not be hereditary but acquired through personal efforts like
education, wealth, occupation and social class.
This refers to the students’ achievement, scores within the class and his
position relative to all those subjected the same test.
result or outcome of anything be it positive or negative.
This refers to prevailing atmosphere in the home whether violent, resentful or
ATTITUDE: Parents disposition to respond in a
characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some
responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up by