TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of Study
Limitation of Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The Importance of Teachers
Concept of Effectiveness
Theoretical Framework on the Factors influencing Teachers’
Factors influencing Teachers’ effectiveness
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The Research Design
Population of the Study
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Procedure for Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Presentation of Results
Discussion of Results
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Background to the Study
Teachers’ role in any educational system cannot be
over-emphasized. Teachers are the executors and implementers of the
educational policies and curriculum.
Hence whether there are loopholes in the educational processes and
outcome, teachers tend to receive more blame for these shortcomings than
any other agent connected with educational activities.
Adesina (1987) recognized teachers as the heart of Nigeria’s
educational system at all levels. The teachers continue to be the major
determinants of quality of education, be it at primary, secondary or
tertiary level. The revised National Policy on Education (1998)
confirms that, “No educational system can rise above the quality of its
Similarly, the National Curriculum Association conference
held in 1969 described the teacher as the “Keyman in the entire
educational programme”. The implication of the foregoing for
educational policy makers in particular and the society at large is
that, adequate attention should be paid to teachers’ welfare in all its
ramifications. This should be the case as point out by Edem (1987):
The curriculum however well developed
and however properly interpreted, will come for short of our hopes
unless it is applied by teachers who are themselves the product of its
In a situation where teachers are left to their fate to face
the rigours of academic and in some cases administration work, there is
the high tendency that they would decline both in efficiency and
effectiveness. Worst still, inspite of these rigours they are being
poorly motivated in terms of salary remunerations. According to Borton
(1981) “Education is not just for personal survival or to increase one’s
income or power over others, but it is for enriching one’s life for
personal growth beyond survival and income”. While agreeing with his
view, the question is will it also be justifiable for teachers to use
their meager income for the provision of school facilities, materials
and equipment needed for effective school work to progress? If the
answer to this question is positive, according to Byme (1981) there is a
danger that the teacher will lose his initial keenness in teaching for
Moreover, the nature of teachers earns them the regards as
experts who know more than their students. This may involve answering
questions, correcting or validating the students’ work or what they have
said. For the teacher to remain as an expert, there must be a
continuous in-service training programme for him and the urge to expand
his breadth of understanding.
In a situation where there is little or no in-service
training programmes and other opportunities for the teachers to widen
their knowledge, it is obvious that they will become incompetent. This
is further buttressed by Wilbert (1978) when he said that the teacher’s
ability to remain well informed on new developments in his ability to
make creative and critical judgments concerning the main trends in his
field bear directly upon his competence as an expert. In other words,
if teachers are behind time and obsolete in their disciplines, their
effectiveness becomes questionable.
Teachers’ performance can be said to be the ability of the
teacher to effectively and efficiently carry out the following duties:
- Adequate preparations for lesson
- Teach the number of periods allocated on the timetable, regularly and punctually;
- Keep the teaching records;
- Sees to the cleanliness of the classrooms and its environment;
- Maintains discipline among his students in and outside the class.
- Check and mark notes given to the students regularly.
- Sets, marks, records, class assignments, tests and examination scripts promptly.
- Properly invigilate both internal and external examinations.
- Attends staff, P.T.A. and other meetings regularly, punctually and partakes actively in them.
- Marks the attendance register daily and takes note of the absentees.
- Sees to the welfare of every student in the class.
- Prepares the continuous assessment booklet and the class master’ sheet.
- Carries out other assignments given to him by the school authority.
High teacher-student ratio, inadequate facilities, equipment and
materials could affect teachers’ effectiveness, and also could reduce
the performance level expected of an average learner. Thus, the
students will directly feel the inconveniences experienced by the
teachers. In a situation of unconducive school climate, teachers may
find it difficult to function effectively. The school climate entails
the sum total of the values and attitudes held by those in the school.
These include the interpersonal relationships existing between the
principal and teachers, between the teachers – students and other people
within the environment as well as everything the school reflects.
According to Ajetunmobi (2001) “there is a direct relationship
between the environment and the intellectual development of the child
inspite of the hereditary germ plasma”.
For instance, in a situation where there is a good school environment
physical and materially, a child will perform well. On the other hand,
a school whose tone is poor and prevent experiential learning by the
child, whose physical plants are inadequate and some times very old and
not in good condition, whose leadership is uninspiring, whose curriculum
is too unwieldy, too narrow or shallow to provide efficiency of use and
where pedagogical considerations are non-existent may produce a child
with low academic achievement.
Furthermore, the truancy of many students nowadays, may influence
teachers’ effectiveness. Many students taking advantage of the fact
that most schools are overpopulated and that absentees are seldom
noticed, disappear from school during the mid-day. Yet, others who were
intentionally absent come-up with varying excuses the next day. In
addition, some students deliberately miss continuous assessment test,
leave their homework undone or refused to attend lesson, even when
present in school, but prefer moving from one class to another or stay
in some corners in the school.
Teachers’ experience is another teacher quality variable that may
also influence student-learning and is indirectly related to issues of
certification. A teacher with long years in teaching would draw home
his point with various examples drawn from his wealth of experience and
this makes the students to understand him better. In other words, a
teacher could be motivated through his experience to achieve a high
level of teaching competence. He is able to achieve the educational
goal by using appropriate teaching method and contexts.
Statement of the Problem
There have been series of comments about the falling standard
of education in Nigeria. From all indications every commentator on the
issue points accusing fingers at the teachers. With a view to
providing quality education in Edo State and Nigeria in general, this
research work will examine some factors which could influence teachers’
effectiveness in our society with a view to proffer solutions to
effective teaching in Edo State.
To solve the problem of teachers’ ineffectiveness, the following questions are going to be answered:
- What are the factors influencing teachers’ effectiveness in public schools in Edo State?
- Do the factors influencing teachers’ effectiveness vary by gender?
- Do the factors influencing teachers’ effectiveness vary by age of principal?
Ho1: There is no
significant difference between factors influencing male teachers and
female teachers’ effectiveness in public schools.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in factors influencing teachers’ effectiveness in large and small schools.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the factors influencing teachers’ effectiveness in age of the principal.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the various factors
influencing teachers’ effectiveness such as gender, school size, age and
to offer suitable suggestions for the enhancement of effective teaching
Significance of Study
Educational policy makers like the Edo State Ministry of
Education, Teaching Service Board (TSB), Post Primary Education Board
(PPEB) of Edo State, School Administrators, Teachers, Parents,
Philanthropic Organization and the students as well, will benefit from
the findings of this study. This is because the various problems that
prevent teachers from performing their duties effectively will be
exposed. Moreover, appropriate recommendations will consequently lead
to positive results in terms of the output of our schools with regards
to quality of students produced. Thus, the standard of education will
be improved. This will create an egalitarian society, economic growth
and national development, which is the objective of the National Policy
Definition of Terms
Factors: These are things that help to produce results, which could be positive or negative.
Effectiveness: Capacity to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money or materials.
Educational Programmes: Entails all teaching-learning process going on within or outside the school supervision.
Motivation: Making teaching appealing and interesting to teachers’ by stimulating the active interest of the teachers.
In-service Training: Training going on or continuing while still in service.
Teacher-Student Ratio: This implies the total number of students in class to a teacher.
Teaching Experience: Is the knowledge, skill acquired or gained over the years as a result of teaching.
Professional Qualification: Special education and training required to be possessed or acquired by a person to work in a given job situation.
Is the overall structure and surrounding where teaching and
learning programmes operates within or outside educational system or