Over the years issues related to
sexuality and contraception have been taken with great reservation by Nigerians,
as a result of increase in sexual expressions and experimentation among
adolescents. This therefore,
investigates contraceptive use among female students of University of Benin,
The objective of this study was to
identify the status, patterned, constraints contraceptives use among female
student of University of Benin, Benin City which will help to prevent some
serious problems, such as unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortions.
The population of the study was
centered on female undergraduates of the University of Benin in Ugbowo Campus
on full-time programme during the 2011/2012 academic session.
A well structured questionnaire
whose reliability was established through test – retest reliability procedure
was used. The reliability coefficient
was found to be 0.74. The questionnaire
was administered to 209 students that was 1/5 of the students residing in the
halls of residence which was selected using the simple random sampling
The analytical tool for the study included
frequency counts and percentages from the data collected and analyzed, the
result shows that low rate of female student of University of Benin uses
In view of these findings,
contraceptive use should be a major part of educational programmes designed for
students’ health, educators and other medical personnel should give appropriate
health education on different methods of contraceptive in regards to their
benefits and limitations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification ` ii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
the Study 1
Statement of the
Purpose of the
the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Framework to the Study 10
Adolescents Sexuality 12
and Behaviour of Adolescents towards Contraceptive 32
Literature Review 34
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF THE STUDY
Research Design 36
the Study 37
Sampling Technique 37
Validity of the
the Instrument 39
Method of Data
Presentation and Analysis 41
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Background to the Study
The practice of contraception is old
as human existence. Ancient writings
noted on the Leahun Papyrus (1800 BCE) that the old Egyptians practice
contraception by using a vaginal pessary of crocodile dung and fermented dough
which may create an hostile environment for sperm.
During the early second century in
Rome, Sorunus of Ephesus created a highly acidic concoction of fruits, nuts and
wool that was placed at the cervical OS to create a spermicidal
barrier (Wikipedia.com, 2010).
Over the years, issues related to
sexuality and contraception, have been taken with great reservation by
Nigerians, as a result of increase in sexual expressions and experimentation
among adolescents. Studies conducted
among female students in Nigeria indicate an overall awareness rate of
70.9%. Among sexually exposed students,
there was contraceptive usage rate of 40.1% and an unwanted pregnancy rate of
30.5% (Adinma and Okeke, 1995).
Most adolescents who are sexually
active and do not use contraceptive face the increasing risks of unwanted
pregnancies and unsafe abortions.
Induced abortion currently accounts for 20,000 of the estimated 50,000
of maternal death occur in Nigeria each year (Akingba, 1977; Okonfua and
Many unwanted pregnancies by
adolescents arise out of ignorance, because they receive inadequate education
on sexual and reproductive health, and the source of information available on
contraception are often dubious, unreliable and misleading because the
information is less motivated by healthcare providers than their peers. The 1990 Demographic and Health Survey
indicated that only 11% of sexually active women age 15 – 19 ever used any
modern contraceptive methods.
The utilization of modern methods of
contraceptive has always been shown to be poor among Nigerian adolescents. Studies from Western and Southern Nigeria
have found the rates of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents to
be about 30% (Arowoju, Adekunle, Okpani and Okpani, 2000).
Although, societal and cultural
inhabitation has been a great influence on the use of contraceptive, among
adolescents because the use of contraceptive had been the prerogative of
married women and adults in most African societies.
Fueye, Castle and Konate (2001)
indicated that previously in many African societies, sexual information among
adolescents is seen as sexual taboo. In
general, the voluntary control of fertility is a paramount importance to a
reproductive health of a woman, which can be essential to her ability to achieve
her sense of well-being. The use of
contraceptive to prevent unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion is especially
important (Nuleo and Pool, 1997; Adedoyin and Adejoke, 1995; and Oladepo and
Furthermore, contraceptive use among
sexually active adolescents would be very important, since it saves them for
high risk of unwanted pregnancies, embarrassment and disgrace. Although, they are some constraints that may
affect the use of contraceptives. It is
this premise that this present study seeks to examine the level of acceptance
of contraceptive use among female students of University of Benin, Benin City.
Statement of the Problem
The promotion of effective
contraceptive use among female students of University of Benin is very important,
if their reproductive health is to be improved, because many female students
are oblivious of the adverse health consequences of ineffective contraceptives.
It should be noted that despite the
wide knowledge and campaign about the use of some contraceptives such as
condom, most female students still distaste such use, therefore, exposing
themselves to unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.
The study will therefore provide
answer to the following questions:
What proportion of female University of Benin
Students use contraceptives?
What are the commonly methods of contraceptives
used among female students of University of Benin?
What are the constraints to the use of
contraceptives among female students of University of Benin?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to
investigate the use of contraceptives among the female students of University
of Benin, Benin City. To identify common contraception and constraints to the
use of contraception among the students.
Significance of Study
Over the years, the rate of
contraceptive use among adolescents is low, because contraceptive use has been
the prerogative of married women, therefore, leaving the youngsters to face the
high risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.
The study will help the curriculum
planners to know the level of knowledge of contraception among adolescents,
thus, the issues on pregnancy, contraceptive use should be a major part of
educational programmes designed for students.
Discussions regarding methods of contraceptive must be acknowledged and
accurate information should be available to match the methods with specified
This study will also help students to
understand the benefits and limitations of the various contraceptive methods and
to also know that efficacy of any contraceptive method can be impaired if they
have access to health care professionals who will give them appropriate
education on contraception.
This study was carried out among
female students residing in the halls of residence in Ugbowo Campus of the
University of Benin, Benin City.
The major limitation to the study was
that some female students were reluctant and hesitant to give correct answers
to questions particularly when sex and contraceptives are sensitive
issues. And some were not wiling to talk
about their sexual lives. Thus, which
adversely affected the authenticity and accuracy of the information on this
Definition of Terms
Period: This is the time when
contraception can occur and one might likely to become pregnant.
Prevalence Rate (CPR): A measure of
extent of contraceptives use among a define population group at a point in
Sexuality: Sexuality is the development of sexual
attitude and practices that creates room for sexual intimate relationship.