PERCEPTION OF MARRIED WOMEN ON FAMILY PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA
study was undertaken to elicit the perception of married women on family
planning programmes in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Using a sample survey, a closed end
questionnaire was administered to 80
married women. The sampled population
were obtained from the four constituencies of Oredo Local Government Area (i.e.
Oko, Ezoba, Iyaro and Ugbor).
data collected was computed and analyzed using frequency count and simple
percentage. A total of 62 respondents
(77%) stated that the lack of male child will prevent them from adopting family
planning. No statistically significant
association was demonstrated between educational levels and the perception of
family planning among the married women.
Respondents aged 36-45 years (18 respondents) were more likely than
those age. 18-24 years to state child
spacing as a method of family planning.
The study also revealed that religious and
cultural beliefs have negative effect on artificial family planning. Overall, the study shows that the identified
barriers reflect opportunities for holistic interventions including
need-sensitive health campaign programmes to educate women and men about
reproductive health and the role they can assume in family planning.
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 10
Purpose of Study 11
Research Question 11
Significance of the Study 12
Scope and Delimitation 12
Limitation of Study 12
Definition of Terms 13
TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Family Planning 15
Different family planning methods 17
Importance of Family planning 28
The Difference Methods of Family
Planning at a Glance 32
THREE: METHOD OF RESEARCH
Research Design 44
Population of the Study 44
Sample and Sampling technique 44
Validity of Instrument 45
Reliability of Instrument 45
Administration of Instrument 46
Method of Data Analysis 46
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION,
RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTION
Summary of Findings 61
Suggestions for Further Studies 67
Appendix (Questionnaire) 74
of the Study
When Western and Scientific Medicine
was born and began to develop under the gleams of Hippocrates (460 – 377 BC),
one of its major point was to remove abortion and infanticide (Edelstein,
1943). The Hippocratic oath thus
solemnly condemned them as unethical.
Before Hippocrates, family planning
has been in practice (Wikipedia, 2010).
In the historical record of the Jews, Onan, son of Judah, in fulfillment
of the laws of leverate marriage was to impregnate his brother Er’s widow,
Tamar, in order to raise offspring from the union in his brother’s name
(Genesis38:8). In order to avoid raising
descendant for his late brother however, Onan spilled his semen on the ground
when he went into his brother’s wife, so that he would not give offspring to
his brother (Genesis 38:9-10). Thus, the
word Onanism was coined meaning ejaculating outside the vagina or coitus
interuptus (Wikipedia, 2010).
Among Christian denominations today,
there are large variety of positions towards family planning. The Roman Catholic has disallowed artificial
contraception for as far back as one can historically trace. It was also disallowed by non-Catholic
Christians until 1930 when the Anglican communion changed its policy. Soon after, most protestant groups came to
accept the use of modern contraceptive as a matter of biblically allowable
freedom of conscience (Flann, 1960). The
only form of birth control permitted by the Roman Catholic is abstinence. Modern scientific methods of “periodic
abstinence” such as Natural Family Planning (NFP) were counted as a form of
abstinence by Pope Paul VI in his 1968 encyclical Humanae Vitae (Humanae Vita
1968). Meanwhile, protestant movements
such as Focus on the Family view contraception
use outside of marriage as encouragement to promiscuity (Abstinence policy,
There is no ban on birth control in
Hinduism (“BBC – Hindu beliefs about contraception”). Some Hindus believe that producing more
children than the environment can support goes against the doctrine of the
religious and moral codes of Hindus.
Although fertility is important, according to the Hindus, but conceiving
more children than can be supported is treated as violating the Ahimsa
(non-violent rule of conduct) (Wikipedia, 2010).
Islam is considered as sympathetic to
family planning. Since excessive
fertility leads to proven health risks to mother and children, and/or leads to
economic hardship or embarrassment to the father or inability of the parents to
raise their children religiously, educationally, and socially, then Muslims
would be allowed to regulate their fertility in such a way that these hardships
are warded off or reduced. Such was
apparently the basis for the legal opinion by Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout, the
former grand Imam of Al-Azhar (Onran, 1994).
For all this time however, child
spacing was the trust of family planning for most societies. The other aspect of family planning culture
is that many men still believe that their wives should not use contraceptives
because of the fear that it will make their wives independent of their control,
and have sex with other men. Some others
are against family planning solely because they themselves know little about
it, a few decry the idea of their wives talking to strangers about sex and
reproduction; while other worry that contraceptive use will harm their wives
health or their own or violate their religious injunction (Population Reports,
1994); and all these will lead to alarming rate of population growth.
is by far the most populous country in Africa and she accounts for
approximately one-sixth of Africa people
(Wikipedia, 2010). The Nigeria
population estimate as at July 2009 was 149,229,090 (CIA World Factbook,
2009). As at 2010, the population of Nigeria rose to
an estimated 152 million with a population growth rate of 2.0% (Bureau of
African Affairs, 2010). The United
Nations estimates that the population in 2005 was at 141 million, and predicted
that it would reach 289 million by 2050 (World Population Prospects, 2006). Nigeria has just recently undergone
the start of a population explosion due to high fertility rates. The United States Census Bureau projects that
population of Nigeria
will reach 264 million by 2050. Nigeria will
then be the 8th most populous country in the world (International
Data Base (IDB) – Country Rankings). Nigeria total
fertility rate is 4.82 (Bureau of Africa Affairs, 2010).
In 1988, the government of Nigeria adopted
the National Policy on Population for Development, Unity, Progress and
self-reliance. The policy was designed
amongst others to slow population growth.
Limited progress was made in implementing the policy, however, and
millions of Nigerians remain mired in poverty, with inadequate access to
reproductive health services and the means to determine for themselves the
number and spacing of their children (National Population Commission(NPC),
For living standards to rise, the rate
of growth of the economy and the provision of social services would have to be
much higher than the rate of population growth (National Population
Contraceptive prevalence among married
women in Nigeria
is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
Although family planning services have been available in Nigeria since
the 1950s, in 2003 only 8.9 percent of married women were using modern
contraceptive (NPC, 2004). It is crucial
therefore, to support and promote policies, such as the National Policy on
Population for sustainable development, which are aimed at ensuring effective
management of the growing population, and improving the quality of life for
Nigerians (NPC, 2004).
The impact of high fertility is felt
at the population levels (national, sub-national, community) as well as by
individuals and family (NPC, 2004).
Infant mortality rates are higher when births are too close together
(less than 24 months apart). In Nigeria,
children born within two years of a preceding birth are twice as likely to die
as those born three or more years apart (NPC, 2004). When birth are too close together, a woman’s
body does not have adequate time to recover from the physical stress of the
previous pregnancy and childbirth, thereby reducing her chance of delivering a
healthy baby. Close spacing can also
reduce the number of months a mother breastfeeds her child (NPC, 2004).
This has necessitated the need for
campaign in strategic places for married women to maintain a very sensible size
of family they will be able to cater, for example, variety of campaign
materials are displayed on the notice or bulletin boards of some hospitals in Benin City, some are
displayed on billboards and other strategic places in the state.
Oredo Local government Area being an
enlightened city does not free herself from being part of the population
explosion in Nigeria. Therefore, this study is to select the
community to mirror the state of things in the city and determine the types of
techniques of family planning the married women are using.
According to Nigeria National
Reproductive Health Strategic framework and Plan (2002 – 2006), the fertility
level in Nigeria remains persistently high at a national level mostly due to:
negative socio-cultural beliefs and norms; negative impact of myths and rumours
about family planning methods, poor access to services especially in rural
areas and for specific target groups; low quality of services due to inadequate
skills of providers and inadequate/irregular supply of commodities; low status
of women, increasing teenage pregnancy; and lack of male involvement (Federal
Ministry of Health (FMH), 2002). These
also shows that some married women in the society still lack awareness of strategies which will not only be appropriate
but reliable, cheap, available and free from any side effect to the life and
health of the user.
Statement of the Problem
An unplanned family brings about
unbudgeted responsibilities and indeed population explosion at large.
Therefore, what are the factors
hindering the practice of family planning?
Is it knowledge inadequacy, religious, cultural or traditional beliefs
of the people?
Purpose of Study
This study is aimed at eliciting the
perception of married women in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State on
family planning programmes.
differences in the perception on family planning programmes between married
women who are less than 25 years old and those who are more than 35 years?
Is male child
syndrome a determining factor in the perception
of family planning?
factor a factor in the perception of family planning?
belief a factor in the perception of family planning?
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this
study will provide necessary information that will enhance activities and
programs towards the practice of family planning to be appropriately conducted.
Scope and Delimitation
The scope of this study covers only
married women between the ages of eighteen (18 years) to forty-five (45 years)
in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
Limitation of Study
Due to the nature of the study topic,
some married women were not readily available.
Definition of Terms
Abortion: The deliberate termination of a foetus on purpose
before its development.
Contraceptives: Devices used in birth control.
Contraception: The use of birth control device to prevent unwanted
Contraceptive Prevalence: The rate at
which birth control device are put to use.
Family Planning: The practice of birth control, child
spacing and contraceptive use.
Population: The total number of people living in a
defined geographical area.
Fertility Rate: The number of children a woman had at a
particular time or in a period of time.
Total Fertility Rate: This is
the appropriate number of children a woman would have in her life time if she
were to bear children at the current age-specific fertility rates throughout
her reproductive years.
Infant Mortality: The
number of deaths to children under one year of age per 1000 live births in a