TABLE OF CONTENTS
page - - - - - - - - - i
page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
of Contents - - - - - - - - vii
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - 3
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 4
Significance of the Study - - - - - 4
1.6 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - 5
1.7 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 5
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 8
2.1 A Brief History of English Language in
Nigeria - - 8
2.2 Status of English Language - - - - - 9
2.3 Importance of English Language in Nigeria - - 11
2.4 The Need for Standard Knowledge of English
2.5 The Teaching and Learning of English
Language - - 13
of Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language 14
of Learning - - - - - - 39
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 51
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - 51
3.2 Population of the Study - - - - - - 51
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques - - - - 52
3.4 Research Instrument - - - - - - 53
3.6 Method of Data
Collection - - - - - 54
of Data Analysis - - - - - 54
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 55
4.1 Presentation and
Analysis - - - - - 55
of Findings - - - - - - 59
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Re: Statement of Problem - - - - - 60
5.2 Procedure used for the
Research - - - - 60
5.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - 61
5.4 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 63
5.5 Recommendations - - - - - - 64
5.6 Suggestions for Further
Studies - - - - 67
References - - - - - - - - 68
1.1 Background of the Study
modern trend in education and the complex nature of learning and instruction
have made the role of the teachers more challenging. This new role does not
just involve the more transmission of information to students but it involves
looking at the problems associated with learning and instruction. The National
Policy on Education (NPE, 2004) in Nigeria emphasized that our
children should be educated properly so that they can acquire skills and
competencies that would enable them function well and solve problems in the
society. The accomplishment and realization of these important educational
goals in Nigeria
lies in the new trend in the educational approaches.
new approaches to learning and instruction expose the students to conceptualize
and effectively manage their own learning and thus reinforce their learning and
transfer their training in practical situations. Despite the new approach to
learning and instruction, English language at the Senior
Secondary School level in Nigeria
has been plagued with poor results and low achievements. Annual results from
West African Examinations Council (WAEC) reveal woeful performances from the
students who have made enrolment for English language examinations a yearly
ritual. It is worrisome to note too that the performance of these students has
continued to deteriorate year after year. It is understood that if the
situation in English Language remains like this, it will affect both the
economic and technological growth of the state. This is because a good mastery
of English language is mandatory on all students in order to do well in other
secondary school subjects. Students who are handicapped in English language are
therefore likely to be handicapped in the acquisition of skills in arts and
technological related subjects.
the foregoing, therefore, we can conclude that English language is an
indispensable language of communication in Kaduna.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
research as stated above concerns itself with the study of strategies for
improving low academic performance in English language by suggesting possible
solution to the following questions:
What are the
attitude/feelings of the students towards the studying of English language?
What account for the
decline in performance in the subject (English language)?
Do they have enough
material and human resources for the teaching and learning process?
Do they understand the
subject very well?
Does the Senior
Secondary School Certificate (SSCE) syllabus have either a positive or a
negative effect on the student performance?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
main purpose of this study is to find out strategies for improving the
performance of secondary school student in English language. Specifically it
To find out the types of
facilities available in the secondary schools for teaching English language.
To identify the methods
of teaching used in teaching English language.
To identify the extent
to which teachers are motivated to teach English language.
To identify strategies
for improving the low academic performance of students in English language.
1.4 Research Questions
following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
What type of facilities
is available for teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State?
What are the methods of
teaching adopted by English Language teachers?
To what extent are
English Language teachers motivated?
What are the strategies
for improving the low academic performance of students in English Language?
Significance of the Study
research work intends to investigate the student achievement in the subject.
The research will be significant in the following ways:
The findings of the
study will shade light on the nature, contents examination and performance
level of the SSCE examination.
The findings of the
study will contribute meaningfully to knowledge of teaching and learning
English language especially with the role of English in the day-to-day
The findings of the
students will also benefit Ministry of Education in Kaduna State
by recruiting qualified teachers in order to improve the performance of the
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
study covers strategies for improving low academic performance in English
Language in Secondary Schools in Kaduna
State. Respondents were
drawn from selected secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
any type of research work, are many hindrances that the researcher must come
across in the course of the assignment. The problem encounter in the course of
this could be attributed to delays in gathering the relevant data needed for
the research work and uncompromising attitude of the people to give the
required information. Time is another major limitation as far as the research
work in concern. The time needed to implement the work may not be sufficient
for logistic reasons. Financial resources may be lacking in carrying out the
required work of the project.
1.8 Definition of Terms
This relates to the execution carried out or putting into effect the task, job
professional trained to impart knowledge to pupils/students.
Evaluation or estimation of the nature, value or quality of something or a
Effectiveness: It is the ability to determine appropriate objectives, that is, the
degree at which School’s goals are met within established resources “doing the
This can be described as a mode of life not
in conformation with rule and non-subjection to contain. The term connotes the
regulations capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly function of the
the process of receiving and interpreting information encoded in language form
via the medium of print.
Writing is the process by which an author uses his mental ability to put words
to paper as well as the result of that process.
Speech: Expression of or the ability to express thoughts
and feelings by articulated sounds.
Tongue: This is the original and first
language of an individual which they acquire from their parents.
L2: This is language two. This is a second that is
learnt as a second language in addition to their mother tongue.
FGN: Acronym for Federal Government of Nigeria.
Curriculum: Curriculum is the subjects comprising a step by
step guide of a course of study in a school.