This study investigated the influence of principals’
leadership styles on teachers’ job performance in public secondary
schools in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State. Related
literatures were reviewed. The respondents for the study were selected
from ten public secondary schools in the local government area. The
simple random sampling procedure was used to select a total number of
one hundred teachers.
A twenty-item questionnaire was designed by the
researcher. The instrument was personally administered; t-test and the
Pearson product moment correlation were used in testing the four
hypotheses formulated. At the end of the study, useful recommendations
were made on how to motivate teachers to improve on their job
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of study
Significance of study
Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical framework
2.2 Leadership styles and effects on teachers’ job performance
2.3 Leadership dimension
2.4 Types of leadership approach
2.5 Relationship between leadership styles and motivation
2.6 The role of the principal in fostering staff relationship in school administration
2.7 The role of staff members in fostering effective principal staff relationship
2.8 Job performance
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Area
3.3 Sampling Technique
3.4 Research Instrument
3.5 Scoring Method/Statistical Framework
Analysis of Data and Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Suggestions for Further Study
Background to the Study
The wealth of a given
country is principally determined by the human resources, available
natural resources and the state of her economic development. Of all
these, it is the human resources that exploit the natural resources,
accumulates physical capital and build the socio-political structure
needed for national growth and development.
Human resources can only
be developed through proper education that is geared towards the needs
of the individual and the society. This is why every government is
concerned with providing education for the citizenry. The need for
education draws from the idea that the children of today are the leaders
of tomorrow, hence both local, state and federal government are keenly
involved in providing educational services to her citizens.
educational system is to some extent decentralized and democratic in
nature. Bothe in policy and practice, education in Nigeria is in the
con-current list for both federal and states. The Federal Republic of
Nigeria (FRN) in the National Policy on Education (1981:P) states in
section 96 as follows:
The Federal Government shall prescribe minimum standards of education at all levels.
technical, pre-primary and post-primary education shall be the
responsibility of both the federal and state governments.
Boards or Authorities will be responsible for management of schools and
the appointment, posting and discipline of teachers.
state governments and the Federal Ministry of Education have
responsibility for establishing and managing secondary and other
institutions, provided they meet the minimum standards prescribed by the
federal government. This is democratic in nature and does not end with
state ministries of education but supposed to be passed on to the
individual institutions through their respective heads. The appointment
of principals and teachers in the state schools are made either by the
state schools boards or the state post-primary education and the
decisions or reports are communicated to the state Ministries of
Education for approval.
This therefore necessitates a deliberate
systematic and planned educational system aimed at instilling in the
child approved societal behaviours, skills, knowledge, habits and
values. The successful implementation of the above depends on the types
of schools provided, how they are organized, the caliber of teachers and
administrative heads as well as the attitude of parents towards their
children’s and wards education.
The government having established
schools, recruits teachers, post them to various schools, pay them
monthly salaries depending on their qualifications, occasionally
inspecting them to determine the extent to which pre-determined
objectives are met. Parents on their parts provide the necessary
materials as needed by their wards and children before sending them to
school. What happens thereafter between the hours of 8:00am to 2:00pm is
under the control of the school head and the teachers.
or otherwise of a secondary school, lies largely on the leadership style
practiced by the principal. The secondary school as an organization
cannot exist without the principal and teachers who perform all the
expected school duties. The principal is the head of the school
administrative unit. The teacher on his part is regarded as a social
worker, a modernizer, a pace-setter who structures environment for
effective teaching and learning. As a result of his professional
expectation in acting in-loco-parentis and also providing quality
instructions, it becomes necessary that a rich and stimulating working
environment and managed by a good and an understanding leader be
provided for them for the smooth operationalization of educational
objectives. This is to ensure that educational goals are realized which
manifest in the overall performance of the students in the school
Most often, particularly in the past fifteen
years, the final examinations, West African Schools Certificate and now
Senior School Certificate results have shown a poor picture. The public
leveled criticism against teachers on what they perceived as low
standards of education, moral laxity among students, mass cheating aided
and abetted by teachers and government lack of interest and commitment
Teachers on their part complain about poor conditions
of teaching in public schools. Teachers have always described lack of
adequate instructional facilities, salaries inadequacies, interpersonal
inadequacies, and above all, principals corrupt nature, indifference and
insensitivity. These are factors which are seriously demonstrating even
to a workaholic.
Principals on their part leveled the student’s
academic poor performance on teachers’ attitude to work, laziness and
their failure to make the best of inadequate situations. The problem of
moral laxity, indiscipline in schools, mass cheating were blamed on
teachers, whose instructional methods and materials have been considered
insufficient, unstimulating and inappropriate to the child’s learning
experiences, interests and propensities. Principals see teachers as
lazy, non-compromising even in the face of no salaries. Their notion is
that teachers must work at all times whether they are sick, hungry or
not, as an excuse from a teacher to be away from school is considered as
In the light of the aforementioned, it is alarming that
principals in Sapele Local Government Area have a lot to grapple with in
ensuring successful principalship. It is the duty of the school
principal to indentify and sustain the teachers’ interest through the
initiation of appropriate leadership style. Since the teachers work
under the leadership of the principal, the principals have to provide
those motivational devices that will influence the teachers’ attitude to
work. There is therefore the need for a type of school administrator
(principal) which requires among other things effective staff
motivation, harmonious staff interaction between staff and staff and
between staff and principal.
As the teacher acts in-loco-parentis,
the principal should see himself as a teacher-trainer, he should
instructs without ordering, correct without nagging and above all,
persuades without insisting (Obe, 1984). Among others, he should
maintain fair play, reasonableness, justice and also establish open-door
policy and good communication network. When these are done, the
principal would have been able to win the support of hid teaching staff.
a school system where there is no bitterness and rancor between the
principal and the teachers, there will be proper integration of personal
and corporate objectives. This encourages a harmonious working
environment, subsequently leading to improved teaching-learning output.
Consequently, the students performance will improve and the required
manpower would have been created through good leadership.
Statement of the Problem
The maintenance of an effective
leadership style and teacher’s job performances in school administration
has been held by many educationists to be the foundation of progress.
The principals’ leadership style can affect the teachers’ other aspect
of human relations, such as those which exist between the staff and the
community on the other. Educational administration must concern with the
satisfaction which the principals and teachers derive from their work.
The satisfaction, it appears can only be found in an administrative
climate where there is a cordial relationship between the principals and
Sometimes, the students, the teachers and members of
the community make highly critical comments about the administrative
styles of some secondary school principals. Many of the comments are
concerned with understanding between the staff and principals, the
maltreatment of the young members of staff by the principal and even
non-involvement of staff in formulation of school policies and in
performance of assigned task by the teachers. All those comments may
reflect the leadership style projected by the principal. Sometimes in
many secondary school, the end of the academic year often result in the
mass transfer of teachers, even students to other schools, because of
misunderstanding between principal, the teachers and the students. This
atmosphere of constant misunderstanding will definitely hamper the job
performance of the teachers. The teachers are supposed to be dedicated
to their duty; they know the rules and regulations of the organization.
They are supposed to come to school early, teach their subjects and even
be involved in other extra-curricular activities if the atmosphere is
conducive. But the opposite is the case with a principal who is not
friendly. The teachers are forced to show nonchalant attitude to work.
This therefore attracts the attention of the writer to look into how the
leadership styles of principals have helped or discourage teachers from
putting in their best.
The following questions were raised to guide this study:
1. Does the leadership style of principal affect teachers’ job performance?
2. What leadership style is most suitable to encourage teachers?
3. Is there any difference in the leadership styles of principals in the rural and urban areas?
4. Is there any difference in the leadership styles of professionally trained and non-professionally trained principal?
5. Is there any difference between the leadership styles of female and male principals?
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
1. There is no significant relationship between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance.
2. There is no significant difference between the leadership of male and female principals.
3. There is no significant relationship between the leadership styles of principals in the rural and urban areas.
There is a significant relationship between the leadership style of
professionally trained and non-professionally trained principals.
Purpose of Study
To identify the most suitable leadership style this will make teachers work better.
To find out whether teachers’ job performance has any relationship with principals’ leadership style.
suggest and recommend factors which will improve the leadership style
of principals so as to ensure a state of mutual co-existence between the
principal and his teachers.
Significance of the Study
It has been argued by some educationist
that the principal is the leading school administrator who is
continuously indentified with the secondary school education.
in fact the institution and as a result, the success or failure of a
school is easily ascribed to his ability to promote interpersonal
relationship with teachers and students within the school. In effects,
it is generally assumed that the success of a school depends to a
considerable extent, on the leadership style projected by its principal
who has much effect on the teachers in the dissemination of knowledge to
students; that, a school will succeed and make progress under the good
leadership of the principal. On the other hand, that it will fail and
degenerate under poor leadership.
Majority of these
principals/administrators will adopt several leadership styles and bring
their own individual charisma into their new roles which their
situation has imposed on them. Some try to copy the administrative style
of their favourite former teachers or other professionals. But it must
be recognized that administration is a skill, which must be learned.
This is why it has become a necessity for every potential school
principal administrator to acquire some administrative training and not
learn on the job as it is presently done.
Job performance or the
success and failure of a school can also be ascribed not only to the
principals alone but to the teachers as well. The teachers will like to
contribute their quota to the school goals, according to them; they will
perform their job well if the atmosphere is conducive and friendly. So
the successful attainment of an organizational goals or high job
performance is to a large extent determined by the degree of
cohesiveness maintained by a group of individual involved in managing
the organization. Group cohesiveness can best to achieve in educational
organization if schools principals and teachers become cognizant of the
pattern of one another.
This symbolic relationship would foster a
cordial and conducive atmosphere and the job performance will be high.
The teachers said job performance was highly related to principal’s
leadership style, teacher’s promotion and school facilities available.
study had the primary objective of identifying the types of leadership
styles of principals in some secondary schools in Delta State and lastly
to evaluate the influence of different leadership styles on teachers’
The findings would to help prospective
administrators in the administration of their schools. For example, they
may be able to discover how to create an ideal principal staff
relationship which can positively influence the performance of the
teachers’ task in the schools.
This is particularly important because a cordial principal-staff relationship is most likely to make for:
A reduction of the need for constant teacher supervision.
A high level of performance of teachers in the schools.
The physical, moral and intellectual development of teachers towards job performance.
The internalization of discipline.
The professional growth of teachers and understanding of their jobs in the schools.
It is hoped that the study would contribute to the advancement of knowledge in at least three different ways:
it would suggest the leadership style that produces a healthy
operational climate in which teachers are happy and co-operate with
Secondly, the finding would suggest how principals
can help create cordial relationship with their staff and improve
Thirdly, the findings of the study would suggest the
nature and type of performance content for the training of prospective
principals and for the in-service training of the incumbent principals.
This research is predicated on the following premises:
a. Teachers will perform better if there is a friendly and co-operative leader.
b. The leadership style of principals has a direct effect on teachers’ job performance.
c. Teachers can be motivated through an ideal leadership even when there are no salaries.
This project was carried out in Sapele Local
Government of Delta State to find out the influence of principal
leadership styles on teachers’ job performance.
However, not all the
secondary schools in the local government area were used, as only ten
(10) schools out of 18 public secondary schools were used.
Definition of Terms
Leadership styles: These are specific patterns
of behaviour emphasized and exhibited by the leader of a group to
influence the members of a group towards the accomplishment of the
In-Loco-Parentis: This is the duty of the
teachers in the acting place of parents; taking care of the students
under his care pastorally.
Professionally-Trained Principals: Defined
in this context as those principals who have received training as TC
II, NCE, B.ED/ or M.ED; Implying that these principals underwent all
training in the act of teaching.
Principals: Those principals who had their degree in other areas but
later went to do a post-graduate diploma in education (PGDE) so as to
Teachers’ Job Performance: This refers to the
general or specific duties and functions assigned to the position of the