1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Over the past decades, the unfortunate reality is that the income
gap has widened between Nigerian families. Educational outcomes are one
of the key areas influenced by family income. Children from low-income
families often start school already behind their peers who come from
more affluent families. The incidence, depth, duration and timing of
poverty all influence a child’s educational performance, along with
community characteristics and social networks (Evan, 2004). However,
both Nigerian and international organizations have shown that the
effects of poverty can be reduced using sustainable interventions.
Meanwhile, poverty remains a stubborn fact of
life even in rich countries. According to Harris (2006) complex web of
social relationships student experience with peers, adults in the
school and family members exerts a much greater influence on their
academic performance. This process starts with student core
relationship with parents or primary caregivers in their lives, which
form a personality that is either secure and attached or insecure and
unattached. Securely attached children perform better in school (Bali,
Granger, Kivlighan, Mills-Koonce, Willongby & Greeberg, 2008). Once
students are in school, the dual factors of socialization and social
status contribute significantly to academic achievement. The school
socialization process typically pressure student to be like their peer
or risk social rejection, whereas the quest for high social status
drives students to attempt to differentiate themselves in some areas,
for example, socio-economic status forms a huge part in this equation.
Children raised in poverty rarely choose to behave differently, but are
faced daily with overwhelming challenges that affluent children never
have to confront and their brains have adapted to suboptimal conditions
in ways that undermine good school performance.
The human conditions which we might classify as
being in poverty have a long history with a variety of interpretations;
these conditions are influenced by a number of factors including
resources, contemporary standards and public perceptions of what is
minimally acceptable (Evans, 2004).
One of the social issue facing students of
poverty is emotional trauma. The emotional climate can often be very
stressful and emotionally depriving. The lack of emotional nurturing
can lead to feelings of alienation, inadequacy, depression and anxiety.
Aggressive or impulsive behaviour and social withdrawal can also
result, which in turn can affect their academic performance. However,
the overall goal of this study is to provide an insight into the
influence of poverty on student academic performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Strong, secure relationships devoid of poverty and lack help
stabilize children’s emotionally and provide the core guidance needed
to build lifelong social skills. Children who grew up with such
relationships learn healthy, appropriate emotional responses to everyday
situations. But children raise in poor homes often fail to learn these
responses, to the detriment of their school performance. For example,
students with emotional instability may get so easily frustrated that
they give up on a task when success was just moments away. Social
dysfunction may inhibit students’ ability to work well in cooperative
groups, quite possibly leading to their exclusion by group members who
believe they aren’t “doing their part” or “pulling their share of
load”. This exclusion and the accompanying decrease in collaboration
and exchange of information exacerbate at risk students’ already shaky
academic performance. However, the researcher is examining the effects
of poverty on the academic performance of the students in Gushegu
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the effects of poverty on the academic performance of the students in Gushegu Midwivery College.
- To identify other factors affecting the academic performance of the students of Gushegu Midwivery College.
- To determine the factors encouraging poverty in the society.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the effects of poverty on the academic performance of the students in Gushegu Midwivery College?
- What are the other factors affecting the academic performance of the students of Gushegu Midwivery College?
- What are the factors encouraging poverty in the society?
HO: There is no significant relationship between poverty and student’s academic performance
HA: There is significant relationship between poverty and student’s academic performance
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- The result of this study will educate the general public on the effects of poverty on the performance of students.
- This research will be a contribution to the body of literature
in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic
performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future
research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the poverty level and its effect on the performance of the students of Gushegu midwivery college.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to
impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant
materials, literature or information and in the process of data
collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will
simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This
consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Harris, J. R. (2006). No Two Alike: Human Nature and Human Individuality. New York:
Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American psychologist, 39(5),
Bleir, C., Granger, D. A., Kivlighan, K. T., Mills-Koonce, R., Willonghby, M. & Greenberg,
M. T. (2008). Maternal and child contributions to certisol response to emotional
arousal in young children from low-income, rural communities. Developmental
Psychology, 44(4), 1095-1109.