MANAGEMENT FACTORS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN PORT HARCOURT LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN RIVERS STATE NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
There is a growing body of literature from researchers and
educationists which have made an attempt to examine the relationship
between education management and students academic performance (Orodho,
2014; UNESCO, 1999; United Nations, 2013; Waweru & Orodho, 2014). The results reveal rather spurious relationship (Waweru & Orodho, 2014).
However, what is clear is that educational management in secondary
schools (either private or public) involves the application of
management principles in designing, developing and effecting resources
towards achievement of educational goals (Okumbe, 2001). This
effectiveness according to UNESO (2009) is judged by the extent to which
schools generally meet the expectations of the society within which
they are established. Since independence, the Nigerian government has
demonstrated commitment to the provision of quality secondary school
education through allocation of financial resources, provision of
trained teachers and establishment of quality assurance department. The
government of Nigeria has also put in place a guideline for the
establishment of private secondary schools and has continually monitored
the activities of secondary school owner with a view to ensure
compliance with the set standard and the guidelines. According to Ohba
(2009), shortage of teachers, lack of basic facilities, community
interferences, poor teaching methodology and administrative related
factors such as poor management of school resources have been noted as
some of these factors that are militating against the effectiveness of
private schools in Nigeria which has continued to have negative effects
on the student’s academic performance.
Many private secondary schools in Nigeria lack infrastructural
facilities, good teachers and are managed by unqualified proprietors. As
a matter of fact, many private secondary schools have turned to
“miracle center” where students are helped to write external
examinations because the students are not prepared, don’t have the
requisite knowledge and confidence to face external examination like the
senior secondary examination and the junior secondary examination.
Literature related to school based strategies employed by school
managers to improve students’ academic performance has revealed mixed
and contrasting range of results (Croninger & Lee, 2001; Zepeda,
2004; Fullan, 1991; Lamb, 2007 ; Waweru & orodho, 2014; World Bank,
2008). Croninger and Lee (2001) reported that the degree of teacher
caring and interaction with students reported by both parents and
teachers has a significant impact on performance. In a review of
effective schools in the US, Croninger and Lee (2001) found evidence
that schools with a common sense of purpose and strong communal
organization involving collegial relationships among staff and positive
adult student relationships are efficient in promoting a range of
academic and social outcomes reflecting students’ engagement and
Port Harcourt local government area has 243 secondary schools, there has been high rates of failure I the external examinations especially some private secondary schools located in the areas that can be described has “slums”.
This is a failure because the graduates of this grade do not qualify
in most careers for further education and training. It is apparent that
various intertwined factors could be responsible for this poor
performance in the local government. This background prompted the
undertaking of this study on examination of management strategies factor
and its influence on students’ academic performance in private
secondary schools in Port Harcourt local government area, Port Harcourt,
rivers state, Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nigeria has put different policies for both private and public
secondary schools in place to make education accessible, improve
transition, quality, completion and retention rates to all her citizens.
Some of these policies included decent infrastructural facilities (good
classroom, library, laboratories, toilets etc.), health facilities,
sports and recreational facilities. Despite this intervention, the
problem of low performance persisted in schools especially in some
private secondary schools that are characterized with poor qualities of
facilities and teachers leading to high rate of indiscipline and poor
academic performance of the students.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the role of management in the operation of private secondary schools.
- To identify the influence of management factor on the academic
performance of private secondary school students in Port Harcourt local
- To determine the other factors that influences the academic performance of private secondary school student
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the role of management in the operation of private secondary schools?
- What is the influence of management factor on the academic
performance of private secondary school students in Port Harcourt local
- What are the other factors that influences the academic performance of private secondary school student?
HO: Management factor do not influence private secondary school
student’s academic performance in Port Harcourt local government.
HA: Management factor do influence private secondary school student’s academic performance in Port Harcourt local government.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- The outcome of this study will educate the general public and the
government on the quality of management of private schools in Nigeria
with a view of identifying the shortfalls and preferring solutions to
- This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in
the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic
performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future
research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the activities of private secondary schools in
Port Harcourt local government area with emphasis on the management
factor as to how it affects the performance of the students in their
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends
to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant
materials, literature or information and in the process of data
collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will
simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This
consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Croniger, R. G. & Lee,V.E. (2001). Social capital and dropping
out of high school: benefits to at risk students’ support and guidance.
Teacher College Record, 103(4), 548- 581.
Finan, T. (2010). Impact of school feeding program in Kenya:
(1999-2008) A Mixed Methods Approach, Rome; World Food Program, 2010.
Fullan, M. G. (1991). The new meaning of education change. (2nd end).
New York:Teachers College Press.
Lamb, S. (2007). Student Resource Package Three Year Rolling
Benchmark Review—Victorian Government Schools (2008). Report prepared
for the Victorian Secondary School Reform. Available at. :
Ohba, A. (2009). Does free secondary education enable the poor to
gain access? A study from therural Kenya. CREATE Pathways to Access.
Research Monograph No. 21.
Okumbe, J. A. (2001). Human resource management: An educational
perspective. Nairobi: Educational Development and Research Bureau.
Orodho, A.J.(2014). Coalescing Nutrition and Health Programmes to
Enhance Pupils’ Participation in Basic Education as A Panacea to
Socio-Economic Development of Marginalized Communities in Kenya in The
21st Century .A paper presented the Africa Nutrition Conference, North
Coast Beach Hotel Mombasa, Kenya. 10-11 March, 2014.
UNESCO (1999). Education for All: A framework for action in
Sub-Saharan Africa: Education Renaissance in the 21st Century. Adopted
at the Sub-Saharan Conference on Education forAll. Johannesburg, South
Africa, 6-10 December.
United Nations.(2013). A New Global Partnership: Eradicating Poverty
and Transform Economy through Sustainable Development. The Report of the
High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post- 2015 Development Agenda. The United Nations.
Waweru .P,N& Orodho,A.J.(2013).Management practices and students
academic performance in national examinations in public secondary
schools in Kiambu County. International Journal of Scientific Research.
Vol.5, Issue 2 ,pp472-479 February, 2014.www.recentscientific.com .
UNESCO (2006). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007: Strong Foundations.
Early Childhood Care and Education. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
World Bank. (2008). Kenya-Data and Statistics. Retrieved from. http://web.worldbank.org/pk:356509,00.html
Zapeda, S. (2004). Instructional leadership for school improvement. Larchmont. NY: Eye on Education