1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It is widely believed that students can acquire better
academic benefits from living in a decent housing unitwithin or around the
campus.So much so, that many colleges and universities, ranging from small
liberal arts colleges tolarge state universities, require students to live on
campus during their first year with fewexceptionscoupled with the failure of
the appropriate authorities in the provision of decent housing for students.
Typically, students exempt from such a policy include students over the age
of25, students that are married and/or have children, and students in the
military as they can afford to provide for themselves a better housing unit
outside the campus at a comparatively expensive amount (Loring, 1996). It has
beensuggested that availability of decent housing structure causes students to
be less likely to drop out or transfer, morelikely to make academic progress,
and more capable of achieving a high level of academicperformance.
Despite these common perceptions, there are inherent
difficulties in estimating the impactdecent housing unit has on student
performance. For the schools that require the year one studentsto live on
campus, there is no effective control group. Typically, year one students
thatdo not live on campus share other features with each other that set them
apart.A house even for students is a place
where one lives. It isa place of residence or refuge. A house is not a mere
transient shelter. Its essence lies in the people who live in it (English,
range of health problems which can be attributed to poor housing conditions is
large, from psychological and physiological effects to specific diseases
varying in the degree of associated morbidity (Chapin, 2001). There is a large
and significant body of scientific literature that demonstrates convincingly
that there are direct causal links between different aspects of poor housing
and particular health conditions (Smith, 1990). Health problems that have been
associated with poor housing include the infectious diseases, non-infectious
respiratory diseases such as asthma, and social and psychological problems.
The literature has identified three
primary components of poor housing that are directly linked to poor health
outcomes: overcrowding, dampness and moulds, and sanitation and basic housing
quality. The researcher will explore t these components and its relationship with students academic
performance coupled with the health consequences.Crowding is generally
considered as more ofa threat to mental than physical health, although the
spread of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and scabies is also
associated with overcrowding. Most studies investigating crowding adopt a
standard measure based on WHO guidelines of either persons/room or sq. ft /
person. However, a caution is inorder since cultures vary in terms of their
tolerance for crowded living conditions. Mitchell (1976) proposed that crowding
is a more complex variable that requires a distinction between density– the
number of people per unit space, and congestion, which reflects the
simultaneous demands for the use of available space. The adverse mental health
effect of crowding stems from the lack of personal control over the available
space, rather than the actual small size of the space. Cultural variations in
definitions of “crowding” also play a mediating role. Crowding which has been
part of students housing system in Nigeria calls for concern making it necessary
to carry out research on the effect of housing condition on student’s academic
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study is designed to examine the
relationship between housing conditions and academic performance of students.
The level of research in this area is fraught with difficultyaround proving
causation: for example, whether poor housing conditions cause certain peopleto
fail in achieving their educational potential, or whether the two are
'associated' – that thosewho are likely to fail at school tend to be
concentrated in poorer condition houses orneighbourhoods anyway. In some areas
(such as mental ill-health) there are schools ofthought that those less able to
cope will 'drift' into poorer areas and housing conditions. Although there may
be more mileage in academic circles around the cause andeffect arguments, the evidence
for the positive impact of better housing isoverwhelming. However, the researcher is analyzing the
effect of housing conditions ofstudents’ academic performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
following are the objectives of this study:
examine the effect of housing conditions on students’
2. To examine the condition of the housing
unitsavailable to Nigerian students.
3. To determine the factors affecting academic
performance of students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
is the effect of housing conditions on
student’s academic performance?
2. What is the condition of the housing
unitsavailable to Nigerian students?
3. What are the factors affecting academic
performance of students?
There is no significance relationship between housing conditions and student’s academic performance
There is significance relationship between housing conditions and student’s academic performance
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
following are the significance of this study:
outcome of this study will be useful to the general public and the government
authorities saddled with the responsibility of providing decent housing for
students in terms of assessment of the current situation with consideration for
its effect on academic performance.
2. This research will also serve as a
resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out
further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to
provide new explanation to the topic
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
study on the effect of
housing conditions on student’s academic performance will cover the present
state of housing used by students in Nigeria and its effect on their academic
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the
researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information
and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.
This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Chapin, F.S. (2001). Some Housing
Factors Related to Mental Hygiene. AmericanJournal of Public Health, 41,
English, J. (1987). Housing and Health:
The Relationship Between Housing Conditionsand the Health of Council Tenants. Journal
of Social Policy, 16, 260-262.
Loring, W.C. (1996). Residential
Environment: Nexus of Personal Interactions andHealthful Development. Journal
of Health and Human Behaviour, 5, 166-169.
Mitchell, R.E. (1976). Cultural and
Health Influences on Building, Houing, andCommunity Standards: Cost Implications
for the Human Habitat. HumanEcology, 4, 297-330
Smith, S.J. (1990). Health Status and
the Housing System.Social Science and Medicine,31, 753-762.