Background of Study
Events, assets and facilities are all location bound. For centuries,
maps have been the major source for depicting land related information.
The management of resources for sustainable development has spurred new
ways and technology for planning and development. Geographic Information
System, a computerized tool that consists of (computerized) map, a
database of descriptive information (attributes), and a set of software
that performs complex spatial operations, is one of the new technologies
available for management of resources. Using GIS, management and
allocation of resources through the effective use of shared data can
provide a better service through efficient and effective
decision-making. The inclusion of photographs, video and sound can
improve the GIS performance turning it to a more realistic tool for
spatial analysis. Education is the bedrock of the development of any
nation;it is one of the most important factors in Nigeria’s quest to
become one of the largest economies by the year 2020. However, with the
recent state of education in Nigeria, measures need to be taken to
overhaul the system in order for it to serve as a reliable and efficient
vehicle for the attainment of the vision. Primary education is a
program of public education followed immediately by secondary or college
schooling. It begins generally at the age of six and continues for five
to six years. According to Encarta (2009) public school is an
elementary or secondary school controlled and maintained by civil
authority, acting through official board expending public money, and
open to all local children. Public schools include grade or grammar
schools, junior and senior high school, and vocational schools. Private
school is program of instruction that is created and controlled,
operated, and principally financed by private individuals and groups
rather than by government. Unlike public elementary and secondary
schools, which are free, nearly all private schools charge some form of
Many definitions exist for GIS; some of these definitions seem to
restrict GIS to a particular application. Meanwhile, Worboys, (1995),
defines Geographic Information System (GIS) as “a computer-based
information system that enables capture, modeling, manipulation,
retrieval, analysis and presentation of geographically referenced data”.
GIS are related to other database applications, but with an important
difference – information is linked to a spatial reference. Other
databases may contain locational information (such as street addresses,
codes etc.), but a GIS database uses geo-references as the primary means
of storing and accessing information.
Second, GIS integrates technology. Whereas other technologies might
be used only to analyze aerial photographs and satellite images, to
create statistical models, or to draft maps, these capabilities are all
offered together in GIS.
Third, GIS, with its array of functions,
should be viewed as a process rather than as merely software or hardware
GIS for making decisions. The way in which data is entered, stored, and
analyzed within a GIS must determine way information will be used for a
specific research or decision making task. To see GIS as merely
software or hardware system is to miss the crucial role it can play in a
comprehensive decision making process.
This project intends to establish the importance of GIS in accurate
decision making for the effective management of educational facilities.
GIS for the management of educational facilities in public primary
schools in Uvwie local government area of Delta state Nigeria is
studied. It is demonstrated in this paper that GIS is a very important
tool in the management of educational facilities. This project is highly
significant in Nigeria and many other third world countries where
management of educational facilities are done manually and therefore
slow and inaccurate. A GIS database for public primary schools in Uvwie
and environs will be of great importance to the state government as well
as the cooperation of all Nigerians, non- governmental organization and
private sector in achieving objectives of education.
It is extremely
important to access the facilities through the use of a GIS database.
With this database there is a potential to improve efficiency of schools
through the planning and management of resources and the display of
geographic knowledge. Analysis from the database can be carried out in
several significant ways.
A GIS database created can assist the
present government in proper distribution of schools, improve the
existing infrastructure and provide additional infrastructure for
planning and management of educational resources. The research will
enable us to know the spatial and temporal distribution of public
primary schools in the study area. In the last part of this project are
some recommendations and conclusion.
1.2 School Mapping Activity
The last phase in the
planning process, when the physical facilities that are to be provided
under the plan are actually located or sited; that is, to decide where
(in what community or geographical area) the school, laboratories,
workshops and such other educational facilities are to be built or
provided. It is suggested to undertake a detailed school mapping
activity in each of the district covering school and non-school based
data in doing this activity, the present stock of data at the National
Primary Education Commission (NPEC), State
Primary Education Board
(SPEB) and Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs), center or
cell should be considered to avoid duplication. Establish close linkage
with the other government agencies like ministry of Defense, Natural
Resources or Environment, Population Census, planning Office and others
to ensure that the requirements of school mapping as a tool for the in
depth analysis of the existing situation of the district can be fully
addressed. This will also build- up and update the present stock of data
of these centres and cells.
1.3Statement of the Problem
The performance of primary school students in the conjugative
assessment examination in Delta state calls for proper investigation.
Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for
the poor performance of students, few research have been dedicated to
the correlation between class size, school population, learning
facilities, the location and spatial distribution of educational
facilities, distance of a school from home and academic achievement of
students. This study therefore looks at how the above listed factors
affect students’ academic performance in public primary schools in Uvwie
Local Government Area.
Aim of study.
The prime focus of this project is on the roles of GIS on the spatial
pattern of distribution of educational facilities as well as provides
necessary database for effective (efficient, serviceable, or operative,
available for useful work) educational planning efforts and effective
performances of pupils in Effurun-Uvwie Local Government Area, Delta
State, Nigeria. Spatial Pattern
Objectives of School Mapping.
The objectives of the study include:
Access the location and pattern of spatial distribution of educational facilities.
Create a database for the educational facilities.
Determine the maximum walking distance of a child to school.
Suggest location of future educational facilities
Determine the Environmental Impacts on educational facilities distribution
1.6 Scope of School Mapping
With the recent development in non-formal education in areas such as
literacy programs, post-literacy courses, vocations training and adult
education, school mapping should cover not only the distribution of
formal educational facilities but also the non-formal educational
facilities. The process of school mapping covers the following specific
areas for expansion and improvement of facilities:
1. Rationalization of existing facilities by:
Shifting, closure or amalgamation of institutions;
Optimum utilization of teaching and non-teaching staff;
Optimum utilization of buildings, equipment’s, furniture, etc.
2. Provision of new or additional facilities by:
Opening of new schools or upgrading of existing ones;
Providing additional teaching and non-teaching staff;
Providing new or additional buildings, furniture and equipment in institutions.
3. Determination of the maximum walking distance of a child to school.
school mapping has the double function of securing greater equality of
education opportunities and at the same time of rationalizing the use of
existing facilities in an effort to optimize the limited material and
1.7.0 Study Area
Effurun is situated in Uvwie LGA, Delta state, Nigeria, its
geographical coordinates are 5° 33′ 0″ North, 5° 47′ 0″ East and its
original name (with diacritics) is Efferun. Spatial Pattern
Effurun is the headquarters of Uvwie LGA which was carved out of the
then Okpe LGA along with Udu LGA on the 4th of December, 1996. The
indigenous inhabitants are the Uvwie people, organized into four
quarters. Each quarter is headed by a traditional administrator known as
the Umuevworo and at the pinnacle of the traditional administration of
the people is the paramount ruler, the Ovie. The LGA is urban with an
estimated population of 172,395 going by the population census spread
across Effurun, Ekpan, Ugberikoko, Ugboroke, Ugbomro, Uredjo (Enerhen)
and others. It is one of the 22 Kingdoms of Urhobo speaking people of
Delta State and has a king, Ovie, who rules over the traditional
institution of the town. The Ovie of Uvwie is HRM Emmanuel Sideso Abe
I. Spatial Pattern
Uvwie Metropolis has expanded due to infrastructural development to
include boundary towns such as Warri, Udu, Ughelli South, Ughelli North
and Okpe local Government Areas in recent years, with various road
networks linking these places into one or the other. Each of these towns
has its own administrative structure. The Local Government Area is
urban with an estimated population of 188,728 going by the 21, March
2006 population census spread across Effurun, Ekpan, Ugberikoko,
Ugboroke, Ugbomro, Uredjo (Enerhen) and others. Its area is 95km2 and
Density: 1,986.6 inh./km2. Spatial Pattern
Geologically, the rock types are recent sediment (post cretaceous).
The major soil types can be related to climatic factors, vegetation,
lithology and topography which gave birth to the hydromorphic soils
found in the area which is seasonally or permanently water logged. The
influence of poor drainage is reflected in the whitish or grayish
colours due to the reduction of the oxides in the soil. The extent of
profile development of the seasonally waterlogged soil is limited by the
depth of the permanent water table. Spatial Pattern
Effurun has two main weather conditions annually. The wet season
begins towards the end of March when the tropical maritime air mass is
prevalent and ends in November, often abruptly. Dry season begins with
the onset of tropical continental air mass, which is predominant between
the months of December and February. The months of December and January
are usually cold- dry months. The daily average high and low
temperatures are in January 12 oc & 13 oc, May 8 oc & 8.5oc and
September 6 oc & 10oc, while the corresponding rainfalls are; 20mm,
10mm and 60mm respectively. Spatial Pattern