This study was aimed at investigating the level of application of
quality assurance in public and private secondary schools in Aba municipality
of Abia State Nigeria. The systems theory and the human relation theory x and x
McGregor and scientific management of
Frederick Taylor were used as foundation of the study, four research questions
were raised and covered of four research hypothesis to pilot the study. A
sample of 144 teachers was drown from seven public and secondary school in the
Local Government Area of study this was carried out using the simple random
sampling technique. Twenty (20) teacher were selected from of the selectee
secondary schools the four hypothesis were analyzed using Pearson product
moment correlation (coefficient and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The
findings rejected all four null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis upheld,
revealing that application of school facilities modern technology teachers
welfare condition and instructional supervision significantly relate to quality
assurance in public and private secondary schools. It was recommended that the
government should provide the basic facilities for schools to enable them meet
up with the era of globalization.
1.1 Background to the study
The importance of Administrators’ Supervisory
stalls in Secondary School in Aba municipality of Abia State cannot be over
view Administrators in Secondary Schools
are leaders, (Bikpong 2002) indicated that leadership deals with having a
comprehensive view of the activities’ and problems of the institutions; with
view in mind, the Administrators as a head of a organization of teacher’s in
schools system has the function of conversation with the teachers in order to
improve learning, with this method the students’ through instruction
supervision they sees instructional supervision
as one of the process where by school administrators try to achieve a
meaningful standards of performance and results, instructional supervision is
quality tool control in the system activities of school administrators which
directed to primarily the achievement of
appropriate expectation of educational system according to Nakpodia
(2004) in view that instructional supervision is seen as activities carried out
by the administrators to inhence instruction at all levels of the school system
–Dittirainga, 1999 state that the role of administrators is to facilitate the
implementation of the various Leaving Situation Teachers where new or old on the job need necessary support
in implementing the instructional programmes’ Administrators as a school heads,
need to provide effective support to teachers’ they have to be involves in the
implementation of instructional programmes by over viewing that teachers are
doing with the student.
It is an
administrators he should devote himself to supervise the teaching learning
process in his schools.
administrators as the supervisor is the one who oversees the activities’ of
teachers’ and other workers’ in the school system to ensure that they improve
to the general accepted administrators’ and practice of education. Denga (1986)
sees’ administrators as some one who’s provide “supervision” to the school in
terms of perceiving deniable objectives, maintaining a balance in the
curriculum and rendering help to teachers regarding teaching methods are other
instructional problems that the
The National Policy on Education (2004) states that, to ensure
quality control in the school, it is necessary to have good teachers and
supervisors. The primary responsibility of the supervisors’ is to see that high
standards are maintained and the schools are run in accordance with the land
The Ministry of Education, State Universal Basic Education and the
Secondary Schools Board should appoint administrators to conform and maintain
standard in our school through their supervisory function. The board appoints
people that are mainly experienced in the teaching profession for the purposes
of supervising the teaching learning activities.
According the Peretomode (2004) suggested that the following
purpose of instructional behaviour or supervisors in the school
a. To directly
influence the behaviour of teachers and the teaching processes employed to
promote student learning.
b. To ensure that each
individual teachers within the school system has been performing the job of
which he was scheduled.
c. To co-operatively
develop favourable climate for teachers performance teaching and learning.
The use of instructional supervision skill is a means of helping
the teachers’ cope with the problem of large student population and development
in the education setting. Instructional supervision skills are important. The
skills help to inhence the teachers’ on their job performance and to
facilitated effective materials , example, micro teaching and workshops,
classroom communication, students’ evaluation classroom management,
inter-school visitation among others. In this study, the researcher to find out
how that the above mention supervision skill can influence teachers’ job
performance in secondary schools in Aba municipality.
1.2 Theoretical framework
1. Theory X and Y
Theory X and
deals with human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the
MIT stoan school of Administrative in the 1960s that have been used in human
resource Administrative, organizational behaviour, and organizational
development. The describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation.
Theory X of
In this x and y theory, Administrative
assumes teacher are inherently lazy and will avoid job if they can and that
they inherently dislike job performance. As a result of this, Administrators
believes that teachers’ need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems
of controls developed.
A hierarchical structure
is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. According to this
theory teachers’ will show little a inbition without a enticing incentive
program and will avoid responsibility when ever they can according to Dr. Kumi
Mark, if the organizational goals are to be met, theory x Administratively
heavily on threat and coercion to gain their teachers’ compliance. Believes of
this theory lead to instruct, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive
atmosphere. The theory x Administrative tends to believe that everything must
end in blaming some one. He or she thinks all prospective teachers are only out
A theory x Administrative believes that his or her teachers do
not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and the it
is the Administrative’s job to structure the work end energize the teachers.
One major flow of this Administrators style is it is much more
likely to cause diseconomies of scale in large picture.
In this theory, Administrators assumes
teachers may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is
believed that teachers enjoy their mental and physical job performance.
According to than job is a natural as play.
The possess the ability for creative problem solving, that their
talents are under used in most organizations. Given the proper conditions.
Theory Y Administrators believer that teachers will learn to seek out and
accept responsibility and to exercise self control and self-direction in
accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.
A theory Y Administrators believes that, give the right condition,
most people will want to do will at work. They believe that the satisfaction of
doing a good job in strong motivation. Many people interpret theory Y as a
positive set of beliefs about teacher.
A close reading of the human side of enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for
Administrators to be opened to a move positive view of teacher job performance
and the possibilities that, this creates. He climate of trust with teachers
that is required for theory Administrative to develop the climate of trust with
teacher that is required for teacher development.
It’s teacher development that is a crucial aspect of any
organization. This would include Administrators management openly with
subordinates, minimizing the difference between supervisor subordinate
relationship, creation comfortable environment in which subordinate can develop and use their abilities this
environment would include sharing of
decision making so that subordinates
have a say in decision that influence them.
Theory x and
theory combined McGregor
Has identified theory x and theory y
differently for the basic characteristics stated previously in the above
sections of what these theories represent- theory x assumptions are that
individuals dislike their careers. Theory x people have to be supervised.
As for theory y
assumption are that individuals like their careers and willing to take part in
responsibility. Theory y people don’t need supervision and can be expected to
turn good productive value in their jobs.
1.3 Statement of the problem
In Nigeria, education is on the concurrent list of government and
this makes the issue of instructional supervision to vary from one state to
another. However, some states have adequate arrangement in place to effectively
supervise instruction at all level of education particularly in secondary
school whereas some states failed to put necessary machineries in place to
effectively supervise instruction in their secondary schools.
Currently most administrators neglected their duty as educational
supervisors but concentrated on managing and administrating schools, instead.
Cawelti and Reavis (1980) found that adminstrators spent less than a third of
their time in supervision. They reported to have used only 20% of their time
for visiting classes, curriculum related task and staff development activities.
Ministry directives (No 3/1987) clearly stated that as professional leaders,
school administrators are responsible for successful curriculum implementation
in their schools. This objective could not possibly achieve unless the
administrators systematically supervise and make it a top priority to do so.
Although, supervision can help to improve the effectiveness of
teaching and learning activities in classrooms, but not without problems.
Abdul, (1988b) observed that some kind of conflict drifted the teacher being
observed and the Administrators apart. Probably due to teachers attitude and
perception that the administrators are under qualified and from a different discipline
of studies. However, this study intend to evaluate the influence of
administrators supervisory skills and teachers job performance in secondary
schools of Aba south local government Area of Abia State.
1.4 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to investigate
the effect of Administrators supervision skills and teachers’ job performance
in teaching effectiveness in Abi municipality.
Specifically, the study was
design to find out.
supervisory skills and teachers’ job performance use of instructional materials
supervisory skills and teachers competence in classroom management
supervisory skill and teachers competence in students’ evaluation
supervisory skills and teachers disciplinary abilities.
1.5 Research questions
The following research questions were design to give guide to the
study. They include.
1. To what extent does
Administrators supervisory skills affect of teacher’s job performance using of
2. How does
Administrators’ supervisory skills influence teachers’ performance in classroom
3. To what extent does
administrators’ supervisory skills relate to teachers’ competence in students
4. How does
Administrators’ supervisory skill influence teachers’ ability to discipline
1.6 Statement of hypothesis
To establish the direction of this study the following hypothesis
1. There is no
significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisory skills and
teachers’ job performance using instructional materials.
2. There is no
significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisor skills and
teachers’ performance in classroom management
3. There is no
significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisory skills and
teachers’ competence in student evaluations
4. There is no
significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisory skills and
teachers job performance in disciplinary abilities.
1.7 Significance of the study
We believed that this study may lead to the revelation that some
administrator approaches in their supervisory skills may not improve with the
school setting and he may decide to change his approach based on what may
emerge from these studies.
The involves helping teachers’ to be properly prepared and be
guided before coming to the class to enable him/her successful carried out his
assignment of teaching and learning. To meet up with the expection of
Nigeria educational philosophy.
For student, the finding would be to them, for it would stand as a
basic for onward day to day teaching which help enhance adequate preparation by
teachers as they are assessed by the Administrators. It’s expected that this
study will surely lead to improve teaching and learning by teachers and
1.8 Assumption of the study
The following assumptions were made as a
direction to the expected variables of the study;
1. It is assured that
the variables of this study are measurable
supervisory skills influence teacher’s teaching performance in secondary
schools in Aba south
1.9 Scope of the study
The study will be limited to the public secondary schools in Aba
municipality in Abia state.
1.10 Definition of term
a. Administrators: Administrators are capable men
and woman appointed by Secondary Schools Boards to head the Secondary School
b. Supervision: This involves the mechanism us by
expected role and norms of the organization in order to achieve the establish
aim and objectives of the organization.
c. Skill: These are method or various
method use to accomplish a goal
d. Teachers’: In a school setting are those who
interpret the content of the curriculum to the understanding to learners’.
Taylor scientific management theory
In 1911, Frederick Winslow Taylor published his work,
Administrative of scientific management, in which he described how the
application of the scientific method to the Administrative of teacher job
performance greatly could improve productivity. Scientific Administrative
methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying
the jobs enough so that teachers could be trained to perform their specialized
sequence of motions in the one “best”
Prior to scientific management work was performed by skilled
craftsmen who had learned their jobs in lengthy apprenticeships.
They made their own decision about how their job to be performed,
scientific Administrative/management took away much of this autonomy and
converted skilled crafts into a series of simplified by unskilled teacher who
easily could be trained for the tasks.
1. Replace working by
“rule of thumb” or simple habit and common and instead use the scientific method
to study work and determine the most efficient way to performance specific
2. Rather than simple
assign teacher any job, match teacher to their jobs based on capability and
motivation and train them to do job at maximum efficiency.
3. Monitor teachers’
job performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they
are using the most efficient ways of doing the job.
4. Allocate the job
between Administrators and teachers so that the Administrators spend their tune
planning and training allowing the teacher to perform tasks efficiently.