THE CHALLENGES AND STATISTICAL IMPLICATION OF COMPUTER BASED TESTING(JAMB) ON NIGERIAN STUDENTS; THE NEED TO IMPLEMENT COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
of the research
of research problem
of the study
of the study
1.6 Scope of
of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Review of
2.2 Review of
of the review
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
3.2 Method of data collection
3.3 Data preparation
3.4 Program structure
3.5 File maintenance module
3.6 Main menu specification
3.7 Problem of the existing system
3.8 Justification for the new system
3.9 System modeling
3.10 Information flow diagram
3.11 System flow chat
3.12 Activity diagram
3.14 Program flow chart
3.15 Database specification and design
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM TESTING AND DOCUMENTATION
4.2 Program language justification
4.3 Systems requirement
4.4 Implementation details
4.5 Procedure testing plan
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
recent times, Computer-Based Assessment (CBA) was introduced as a new
assessment mode in some of the tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria.
This is a sharp departure from the traditional paper-and pen or pencil mode of
testing. The trail blazing tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria in the
use of these innovation include University of florin, University of Benin,
University of Lagos and National Open University of Nigeria to mention but a
few. Some Polytechnics and Colleges of Education also introduced CBA for their
yearly entrance examinations. These institutions started this form of
examination with the post University Matriculation Examination (Post UME).';
Some of these institutions have started using CBA for
their semester examinations especially where the classes are very large. For
instance, the University of Ilorin has been using the system in the past three
years for all levels of students (Jimoh, 2010). In the same vein, the National
Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) examined her distance learners using the CBA
for the first time in May/June/2010
semester examination. CBA used to be seen as an examination mode for developed
nations but is now in practice in several developing nations of the world
(2010) defines a computer-based Assessment (CBA), also known as e-assessment,
as computerized testing and computer-administered testing as a method of
administering tests in which the responses are electronically recorded,
assessed or both. As the name implies, computer- based assessment makes use of
a computer or an equivalent electronic device such as a cell phone. CBA systems
enable educators and trainers to author, schedule, deliver and report on
surveys, quizzes, test and examinations. Computer Based Assessment may be a
stand-alone system or a part (jif a virtual learning environment, possibly
accessed via the World Wide Web. Virtual learning environment work over the
internet and provides a collection of tools such as those for assessment (particularly
of types that can be marked automatically, such as multiple choice test-item
A good example of Computer-Based Assessment is
Business Language Testing Service- (the BULATS) which is an on line test which
is a highly sophisticated system which pin points the candidates ability
quickly and accurately by using adaptive testing techniques. As the candidate
progresses through the test, the computer selects the next question on the
basis of the previous answers, becoming progressively easier or more difficult
until a consistent level of ability is achieved.
In 1998, TOEFL (Test Of English as a Foreign Language)
began switching from a paper-based test to a computer-based test (CBT) in many
parts of the world. The test combines many of the same question types as
traditional paper-based test with new question types that can be offered only
on the computer. While many examinations are administered in the paper based
format, most testing companies in the United States of America are following
the national trend of computer-based testing. Each computer test takes the
candidates through a short tutorial to instruct the examinee on the use of
computer, and how to answer test questions. The test administrator is available
at all times for technical assistance. Many candidates find the individual,
non-distracted environment and in most cases, immediate score report feedback
very attractive features of computer based testing.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH
the past few years, technology has significantly reshaped the method of
In many academic domains, educational measurement has
been moving towards the use of computer-based testing (CBT), defined as tests
or assessments that are administered by computer in either stand-alone or dedicated
network, or by other technology devices linked to the internet or world wide
web most of them using multiple choice questions (MCQs) (Sorana-Daniela, B.
& Lorentz, J. 2007). Computer based tests have been used since 1960s to
test knowledge and problem solving skills (Peter, C. Bill, I., & David, S.
2004). Computer based assessment systems have enabled educators and trainers to
author, schedule, deliver, and report on surveys, quizzes, tests and exams.
There are two main types of computer based testing.
The most familiar type is where candidates fill in their responses on a paper
form, which is fed into a computer optical mark reader. This reads the form,
scores the paper, and may even report on the test reliability. The second type
of computer based testing is where computers provide an assessment interface
for students: they input their answers and receive feedback via a computer
(Peter, C. Bill, I., & David, S. (2004).).
An effective method of student assessment is necessary
in chemistry as well as all areas and levels of education. Due to an increase
in student numbers, ever-escalating work commitments for academic staff, and
the advancement of internet technology, the use of computer assisted assessment
has been an attractive proposition for many higher education institutions
(Darrell, L.B. 2003). Since their first use, computer-assisted test
construction systems have made a major impact on the design and generation of
chemistry examinations at many universities and colleges.
Currently in University of Ilorin, the traditional
method (a combination of essay examination and practical examination) is most
used as evaluation of students’ knowledge. In the past few years, the number of
students increased drastically and the conventional examination method became
time consuming in term of the examination time for evaluation and assessment. A
solution of examination in large classes of students is an automated testing
system and this has been introduced by the University of Ilorin in 2008,
primarily to address this concern and others.
Generally, advantages of CBT systems over traditional
paper-and-pencil testing (PPT) have been demonstrated in several comparative
works and as mentioned by (Peter, C. Bill, I., & David, S. (2004).), CBT is
not just an alternative method for delivering examinations, it represents an
important qualitative shift away from traditional methods such as paper based
tests. Despite, these advantages available in computerized test administration
as it was shown that, it does not mean that CBTs are intrinsically better than
paper-and-pencil tests John, C.K., Cynthia, G.P., Judith, A.S., & Tim, D.
(2002). Previous study by (Fyfe, G., Meyer, J., Fyfe, S., Ziman, M., Sanders,
K., & Hill, J. (n.d)) have even found that testing format does not affect
test scores and as such CBT canbe considered a valid and acceptable testing
As CBT began to be used for summative assessment,
establishing whether computer based testing performance was comparable to that
of paper based assessment became important.
Researchers have performed large scale reviews of
studies examining differences in performance of CBT and paper-based version of
tests and have generally found that when CBT is similar in format to pencil and
paper tests, it has little if any effect on test performance (Darrell, L.B.
From students’ perspective of the CBT there have been
a number of mixed reactions. Previous research) showed that more people
anticipated problems with the computer assisted assessment than actually had
them (Darrell, L.B. (2003)). Their research also showed that despite fewer
students being confident about CBT before completing the assessment more
students stated a preference for CBT afterwards. Previous study conducted
indicated a preference for CBT over PPT (Fyfe, G., Meyer, J). Some studies
reported the main disadvantage as being increased anxiety amongst those
unfamiliar with use of computer (Darrell, L.B. (2003) and (Fyfe, G., Meyer, J)
and as such students agreed that they are “technophobic”.
The challenge to test examinees by means of
microcomputers demands appropriate software design. To comply with this demand,
students’ beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a
computerized test are important since user perceptions and criticism are crucial
in the acceptance, implementation and improvement of computerized tests.
Furthermore, whilst recognising the systemlevel
advantages associated with CBT it is important to explore the relationship
between assessment mode and the behaviour of the students being assessed. If
the term “affordances” is used to describe what is made possible and
facilitated, and what is made difficult and inhibited by a medium of assessment
(Johnson, M. & Green, S. 2004). It is possible that the affordances offered
by computer mediated assessment may affect the perceptions of students involved
in computer-based assessment differently than if they were engaged in
paper-based assessment (Johnson, M. & Green, S. 2004).
In general, several areas appear worthy of
investigation, including issues related to quality factors that may influence
performance and student perceptions regarding computer-based tests.
The fact that students’ perception of CBT for
chemistry courses is an under-explored topic is apparent. This study describes the
findings in this domain with a view to disseminate good practice, guidelines,
and models of implementation and evaluation of a particular type of test mode,
namely, CBT for undergraduate chemistry courses.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
management of University of Ilorin has recently implemented the use of CBT to
test students’ knowledge. The advantages of using computer technology for
educational assessment in a global sense have been recognised and these include
lower administrative cost, time saving and less demand upon teachers among
others. Whilst recognising these system-level advantages it is important to
explore the challenges and its implication on the students being assessed
(Johnson, M. & Green, S. (2004)) because the assumption of comparability
between CBT and PBT without proper investigation within that particular testing
context, is inappropriate ( Lorentz, J. 2007). Some test takers reported that,
it is more difficult to navigate back to rework problems. Some are resistant to
the computerized testing process because they are accustomed to taking notes
and circling question and/or answers for later review ( Lorentz, J. 2007).
Others say that they read more quickly and more easily on paper than on a
glaring computer screen.
The challenge on CBT test designers and administrators
is to construct CBT to be fair and reliable and to produce valid test scores.
Furthermore, they have to be designed to minimize
examinees’ frustration and to limit the sources of examinee anxiety. These
additional test design steps are well worth taking, because of the effective
and measurement improvements they offer (John, C.K., Cynthia,). CBT
implementation should also be constructed to meet the standard requirements
such as that of International Test Commission (ITC) as has been summarized
under four issues. These are: the Technology, Quality, Control, andSecurity.
Also, it has been stated that computerized administration of test normally
should provide test takers with at least the same degree of feedback and
editorial control regarding their responses that they would experience in
traditional test taking formats.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
With the use of a new technology in town, the CBT, the
researcher went on to fine the challenges this system is facing and its
implication a statistical evaluation of its effect on the Nigerian students.
Other objectives of this study are:
To evaluate the statistical performance
analysis of the students with the use of this CBT among them.
To ascertain the operational effectiveness of
Introduce a means of training our students on
before the actual use of the CBT system CAL – Computer Assisted Learning.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
following six research questions were formulated in addressing the problems
identified in this study:
1. What are the issues peculiar to the use CBT among
2. What are the general constraints on the use of CBT
for assessment of student?
3. What are the effects of the test administration
mode on students’ performance i.e students’ scores?
4. What is the relationship between prior computer
experience and performance in computer-based testing?
5. What practices are helpful to improve the
perception about CBT?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
significant importance of this research work is on the new technology or idea
that the research work introduce, the need for the use of a CAL system to aid
the learning and understanding process of the CBT. This study evaluates the
challenges of the use of CBT and analyze the statistical implication on
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
research work uses the Unified Admission and Matriculation Board – JAMB as the
case study of this work. Also, this study is an evaluation research work, that
evaluate the challenges facinf the use of CBT and its statistical
implication. Any other thing falls outside
the scope of this study.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
times as such, where there is a financial crisis within the nation, this have
gratlly contributed to the main source of limitation to this research work, as
the researcher was faced with financial constrain and could not successfully
visit place needed to for the course of
this study. Also, an access to the information needed for this study was a problem.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CBT: Computer Based Testing
CAL: Computer Assisted Learning
JAMB: Unified Admission Matriculation Board
COMPUTER: an electronic device capable of taking
instruction and executing it and returning the result back
IMPLICATION: The consequence that follows a misuse of
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