Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of General Problem - - - - 5
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - 6
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 6
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - 7
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 8
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 8
TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 10
2.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - - 11
2.3 Conceptual Review - - - - - 14
2.4 Empirical Review - - - - - 16
THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 32
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - 32
3.3 Population of Study - - - - - - 33
3.4 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - - 33
3.5 Method of Data Collection - - - - - -
3.6 Research Instrument - - - - - - -
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - 33
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - 34
3.9 Statistical Method - - - - - - -
3.10 Methods of Data Presentation and Statistical Analysis - 34
FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 36
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - 36
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - 36
Analysis - - - - - - - 39
4.4 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - 46
of Findings - - - - - - 51
4.6 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 52
FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 54
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 54
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 57
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 58
- - - - - - - - 61
Appendix - - - - - - - - 62
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental
change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process
of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods
that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional
epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to
impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until
today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student
learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field
of educational research (Hightower, 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and
learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching
methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor
academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to
application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to
learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching
methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the
achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that
involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific
outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011)
maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies
that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be
As an educator, the
researcher has always been fascinated by the relationship between teaching
methods and students' academic performance; especially when it comes to
applications in the context of 21st century education. It seems that there is
something in teaching that opens the gate of learning. It is true that
successful learning depends on various factors that are not all
teacher-related, but the methods that a teacher uses continue to play an
important role in student learning and in their academic achievement. The
challenges that educators face in the 21st century are so diverse that using
better teaching methods is more crucial now than ever before.
Gibbs and Jenkins (1992) bring the
argument that the context of class and society has changed, but the teaching
methods have remained unchanged. Various recent studies
attempting to address the issues that affect teaching methods and student
learning today include educational technology integration (Abbitt, 2011),
teachers’ roles (Webb, 2009), the class environment (Doll et al., 2010),
understanding the adult learner (Kisamore, Aldridge, Alexander, & White,
2008), length of the class session (Coskun, 2011), increasing class size in
schools (Gibbs & Jenkins, 1992), students’ attitudes (Akkuzu & Akcay,
2011), as well as the increased interdependence of society today (Schul, 2011).
teaching methods are not something new in educational research. A large number
of studies have been done on this area. Pascarella and Trenzini (2005) have
written a compendium of research studies conducted in this area over the past
three decades. Even before that, Feldman and Newcomb (1973) mentioned decades
of similar research studies in the area of teaching methods. These show both
increased interest and knowledge in the area of teaching strategies and
learning theories. Svinicki (2000) suggests that these studies on teaching
methods conducted in the past decades are so overwhelming that it would be
impossible to go over them all in detail. For many decades, the search for
better teaching methods to provide the best learning has been the goal of education.
However, teaching method is not a one-size-fits-all proposition. Flexibility is
crucial in adapting teaching methods in the class. Since all teachers are
different, the strategies they use, and the way they use them will depend on
the context and situation of their class (McCornac & Phan Thuy, 2005), as
well as their own personality and biases.
The effect of
teaching methods on students’ learning should be the interest of every teacher
and student. In the field of education, there have been various studies done in
an attempt to measure teaching methods. Gray (2004) conducted a case study on
several teaching methods in schools to explore the reasons for their use, and
perceptions of effectiveness. The result of their study suggested that various
methods do influence teaching effectiveness.
to Keene (2007), each student learns best using strategies and objectives that
reflect his experiences, abilities, aptitudes and interest. Similarly, there is
no standard teaching method. The various teaching methods overlap in definition
and application; none being mutually exclusive although researchers often
delineate several teaching strategies. Demonstration technique is one of the
many teaching learning style under the investigative or activity based. It is a
method which is capable of improving learning through its diversity effect
activity. It has the prerequisite characteristics for individualized
instruction and therefore has high potential for making teaching-learning
process challenging and rewarding. There is a radical departure from the direct
teaching model in which the teacher engages student to learn. Students are
encouraged to ask questions. In short, the student is viewed as an inquirer, a
seeker of information and a problem-solver. These attributes are crucial
to problem-solving and are at the heart of demonstration model
of teaching. Consequently, there is now a growing concern for the use
of demonstration technique in the teaching of Government in Nigerian
In recent times, much research attention has been focused on teaching
of government in Nigerian Secondary Schools with a view to ascertaining the
adequacy and appropriateness of the teachers’ method of teaching and indeed the
effectiveness of instruction. Investigation into the use of demonstration
instructional technique in the teaching of government in Nigerian
Secondary Schools seem to have focused mainly on teachers’ frequency of the use
of this technique and sparingly on the application of important variables influencing
its effective use. In a sense, no research attention has yet been paid to the
effectiveness of teaching government using demonstration technique. The
use of demonstration instructional technique as an
innovative instructional practice can only be effectively
implemented if the teachers possess the appropriate knowledge, skills and
abilities related to its use in the classroom situation. Competence is learnt
attitudes and aptitudes shown as capacities for controlling, actively
struggling with and mastering life problems through the use of cognitive,
social and scientific skills. Thus, as a learnt characteristic, the amount of
it possessed by individuals can be measured and development through appropriate
and constant involvements in activities. Skills for the demonstration technique
of government consist of the teachers’ awareness and understanding of the
issues surrounding demonstration teaching. These include knowledge of
questioning, identification of events that are suited to demonstration. Others
are how to demonstrate curiosity and independent thoughts in students (Brown,
1999). They also include ability to elicit students’ questions (Kona, 2000).
The present concern for Nigerian government teachers with regard to acquisition
of these qualities is born out of the fear that since most
of these teachers have been used to expository teaching approach and
considering the existing inadequacies in teacher education in Nigeria, their
awareness, equipment, orientation and willingness to embrace and effectively
use the demonstration technique as a mode of teaching are bound to be
questionable. This activity technique is at times misconstrued and hence
This paper attempts to elucidate the
concept of activity vis-à-vis demonstration method of teaching, and empirically
establish its effectiveness on SS 2 students’ achievement in Secondary School
discussion method has been widely accepted and recommended by some educators as
the good method of teaching in secondary schools (Phipps & Osborne, 1988).
The discussion method is the method of teaching where the central and essential
characteristic is interaction (Binkley and Tulloch, 1981). During discussion
session students participate in the learning process by contributing problems,
analyzing the factors associated with the problems, developing possible
solutions to the problems, placing the solution(s) into action, and evaluating
the results of the solution.
Watt and Walther (2004), articulated this position and present evidence that, demonstration
method is generally effective in teaching sciences, mathematics and mechanics
as well as subject areas within vocational and technical education. As stated
by Gokhale (1996), the professional success of a technologist is directly
related to his/her ability to transfer knowledge gained in the academic
environment to real-world situations. Much student learning occurs through
observing others. A demonstration provides the link between "knowing
about" and "being able to do." Research reveals that demonstrations
are most effective when they are accurate, when learners are able to see
clearly and understand what is going on, and when brief explanations occur
during the demonstration (Saskatchewan, 1988).
good teaching among other factors play significant role in enhancing
performance, this study attempted to find out which method of instruction
better facilitate learning in secondary schools by beaming
light on the different methods of teaching in secondary schools.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Given the high value
placed on government at the Nigerian Senior Secondary School Curriculum, and
the nature of the subject, the need to teach it effectively through an
effective method is indisputable. A few of the problems affecting the
teaching and learning of government are the meaningfulness of the content, the
sustainability of the methods and probably, the teacher who handles both the
content and method. There is scarcity of published works on the use of
demonstration in teaching government particularly in Ibiono Ibom Local
Government Area of Akwa Ibom state where this study is carried out that is
known to the researcher. The incidence of ineffective teaching of
government in Senior Secondary School has resulted in poor achievement in
examination. This necessitated the need for a more effective and
a teacher does in the classroom depends to some degree upon his approach to
learning situations. However, students' negative attitudes toward learning may
be related to the method of instruction (Dyer, 1995).
teachers with high morale, motivation and a mastery of knowledge, learner
difficulties and capacity to facilitate learning are important (Zadra, 2000),
correct use of an appropriate teaching method is critical to successful
teaching and learning. Knowledge of how teaching methods affect students'
learning may help educators to select methods that improve teaching quality,
effectiveness, and accountability to learners and the public. It may also help
them keep up with information technology, globalization and to avoid the status
quo (Foster, Pinkest and Husman, 1991).
for effective teaching in vocational education is centered on certain factors
such as what to teach, when to teach and how to teach. The teacher does not
only teach the most relevant, meaningful and useful materials for specific
students, he must also recognize and adopt a good and well-researched method of
teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate
methods of instruction have been employed for students' interest depending on
the situation. Varying factors ranging from socio-economic background,
intelligence, attitude of students to teaching methods employed by teachers
have been attributed to this poor achievement. Tawari (1986) observed that
teaching methods that encourages students centered activities for developing
reasoning and process slides through scientific approach are conspicuously
effective teaching to take place, the teacher must stimulate, encourage and
maintain active participation of the students, through the selection of
appropriate teaching methods. This would require a balance between what is
taught and how it is taught.
successful teaching in vocational education does not depend only on the
teachers' mastery of the subject matter but also the teaching method employed.
Hence, Ogbonna (2000) opines that one of the most influential factors in
teaching is the teacher's method of teaching.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
assess the relationship between the use of discussion method and academic
performance of students.
examine the relationship between the use of demonstration method and academic
performance of students
ascertain the relationship between the use of lecture method and academic
performance of students
determine the relationship between the use of questioning method and the
academic performance of students.
is the relationship between use of discussion method and academic performance
is the relationship between the use of demonstration method and academic
performance of students?
is the relationship between the use of lecture method and academic performance
is the relationship between the use of questioning method and the academic
performance of students?
HYPOTHESIS OF STUDY
The following null hypotheses are formulated to be tested at 0.05level of
is no significant relationship between discussion method and student academic
is no significant relationship between demonstration method and student
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study may be considered significant in a number of ways: it will help to
increase the teachers’ level of awareness and understanding of the use of most
of the instructional technique. Findings may also provide the teachers with a
feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as
a basis for improvement in their instructional practice so that they can
enhance performance. Curriculum planners and educators as well as government
and educational administrators need empirical data on the overall teaching
method and activity teaching competence of government teachers in Senior
Secondary Schools to facilitate proper curricular policies and programmes for
effective teaching and learning.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
focus of this research is on the effect of activity techniques (i.e.
discussion, demonstration, lecture and questioning approach) of teaching on
Senior Secondary School Students performance in government. The educational
level of focus is SS 2 students. It is believed that these groups of students
have been exposed to the knowledge, attitude and skills of the subject. The
work covers performance using all the commonly used method of teaching.
1.8 LIMITATION OF
constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher
in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the
process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other
academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the
DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this study, it is imperative to define the terms that will be appearing
during the course of this work as they are used within the context of the study
for clarification purposes.
This is student-centered teaching-learning approach, where the student has some
control over the process and directs more or less the instructional activities
with the teacher providing adequate guidance.
method: It is a teaching device or strategy adopted by a teacher to teach a lesson,
this includes the use of games, text books etc. that stimulates learning.
performance: Learning outcome or output in students taught government which
results from teaching techniques/methods the teacher adopts.
Outcome of result of using appropriate teaching method on students as measured
by government performance test.
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