The aim of this research work is to find
out the role of importance of improvisation in the teaching of
integrated science in secondary schools, using all secondary schools in
Egor Local Government Area of Edo State as a case study. A total of 100
students were used on this study. The instrument used for data
collection was the questionnaires which were administered personally by
the researcher to five randomly selected schools in Egor local
government area of Edo State. The method used for data analysis was
normal data simple percentage was used to examine the role of importance
of improvisation in teaching of integrated science in secondary
Findings of the study are as follows;
- To the extends at which importance of improvisation facilitate learning is recommendable.
- Despite the high cost of getting instructional materials, teachers
in secondary schools take it as a task to improvise for instructional
- Pupils easily remember topics taught with the use of importance of
improvisation than those taught without the use of instructional
- Pupils in secondary schools find it easily to put into practice
those topics and lessons taught with the use of instructional materials.
- Importance of improvisation when properly used during teaching
enhance and lead to better performances of pupils during given
assignment, test and examinations.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the study
1.3 Research questions
1.4 objective of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope/limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
Chapter Three: Research methodology
3.1 Research design
3.2 Population of study
3.3 Sample of study
3.4 Sampling techniques
3.5 Research instrument
3.6 Administration of instrument
3.7 Validity of instrument
3.8 Reliability of instrument
3.9 Method of data analysis
Chapter Four: Data analysis and discussion
4.1 Data analysis
4.2 Discussion of results
5.1 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Improvisation are those things that
enables students to have mental picture of what has been taught and to
retain the message in their memory for a very long time e.g. Radio,
Television, Charts, Micro-Projectors, Still Pictures, Specimen e.t.c. It
can be referred to as those things that the classroom teacher uses to
impact knowledge to pupils in the classroom in order to achieve his
According to Ogunmola, (2002)
cited that improvisation are those visual or audio visual materials
which facilitate the assimilation of organization. Infact, for effective
teaching and learning to take place, importance of improvisation are
can exist without adequate use of integrated science education programme
can exist with adequate use of integrated equipments examples of such
equipment are integrated, monitor, keyboard, typewriter, mouse, scanner,
printer, duplicating machine e.t.c these science equipments are
indispensable to a good integrated science teaching and training and
It is no gain saying that
interest in learning integrated sciences increasing in Nigeria. Each
local government area is trying t o improve on the production of
technology. This is justify for integrated science has totally assured
great importance interest role of national power and productivity.
According to the new trend of integrated science, teaching has as shown a
radical departure of traditional expository mode, in favour of
practical and inquiry method to the inclusion of problems solving and
active involvement of people in the open minded fielding practical
In view of this, it can therefore be
assumed that unique facilities and equipment are available in secondary
school. For practical works pupils will not derive much from the attempt
to learn integrated science. It has been stressed by Howard (2003) when
he said what we learn is what we do” doing what we learn in integrated
science requires the use of practical work. We also have the bear in
mind that at least some of the pupils would or may need to become
professionally integrated list. Such pupils need the equipment to be
able to develop necessary practical skills. Beside, the basic sources of
integrated science experience is of course of direct contact which
objects and events it’s in nature outside the classroom
Specifically some specific
educational reasons to have equipment for teaching was summarized by
Balogun (2000) as follows
- It enables the learners to develop functional and manipulating skills
- It enables the learner to develop problem solving skill and scientific attitude
The acquisition of these skills is the
contribution of integrated science education in the general preparation
of the youth with emphasis on activities based on child centered
learning coupled with pupils enrolment into school in the face of
corresponding decline economy. It is against the background that we can
appreciate the significance of the question “the important role of
integrated science equipment in secondary school
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
There are many problems and obstacles
which hinder the effective teaching of integrated science in our
secondary schools. Despite the importance attached to the subject there
is no secondary school in Egor local government area in Edo state where
the range of resources available for the teaching of integrated science
can be described as being in anyway adequate
This arises as a result of
inability of these materials especially now, due to foreign exchange
restriction and large populations of secondary schools pupils.
The aspects of this problems
will be dealt with in this study which has the survey of material
resources required by the teaching of integrated science. In secondary
school in Egor local government area of Edo state.
The following specific
questions can be asked does teachers in secondary school improvised or
substitute for importance of improvisation which are not easily obtained
Are there enough materials
resources for integrated teaching in secondary school? What are the
materials that can be improved?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to
survey the materials resources available for the teaching of integrated
science in secondary school in Egor local government area.
The study will examine
- The availability of improvised facilities in our schools
- Whatever and how integrated science teacher in secondary schools improvise for materials which are not easily obtainable
- The type of materials that can be improvised
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hope that the findings
of this study will be beneficial to educational agencies in Egor local
government area of Edo state.
It should be of great important to educational administrates in the distribution of resources to schools
Further more, the result of
the finding will be of great benefit to the integrated science teachers
in other impact the required integrated science skills to the pupils
1.5 SCOPE OR LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study will
cover many materials resources available for the searching of integrated
science and the type of materials that can be substituted or
This study is therefore
intended to show through the use of questionnaires. The availability of
standard and improved integrated science equipment or facilities in ten
(10) randomly selected secondary schools in Egor local government Area.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
- To what extent is the importance of improvisation in the teaching of integrated science in secondary school
- Do teachers in secondary school improvise for importance materials which are not easily obtained.
- Do students in secondary school easily remember topic taught with
improvised materials than those topics taught without improvised
- Do students in secondary school find it easy to put into practice what they are taught with the use of improvised material?
- Does the importance of improvisation led to better performance of students in secondary school.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Terms that are related to the study are defined below in order to remove somatic ambiguity in their usage.
- FOCUS. To give attention, effort e.t.c. to one particular person or subject.
- IMPROVISED. To make or do something using whether is available, usually because you do not have what you really want.
- INDISPENSABLE. Essential, too important to do without.
- SCIENCE. Knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world.
- INTEGRATED. An electronic or machine that can store, organized and find information do calculate and control other machines.
- INSTRUCTIONAL. That teaches people something.
- MATERIALS. Things that are needed to do a particular thing.
- RADICAL. Concerning the most basic and important parts of something.
10 TECHNOLOGIES. Scientific knowledge used in practical way.