1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is the panacea for
technological advancement of any nation. The progress of any nation
depends largely on the technological know - how of that country. It was
in realization of the fact that only technological education can
emancipate us from the western economic and technological slavery, that
the National Policy on Education (1977), revised (1981) recommended
expand technical institutions in the country. In 1979, all secondary
schools in the country were required to offer Introductory Technology
along side other subjects as one of the compulsion subjects at the
Junior Secondary School Level.
It has been observed that the curriculum
of our schools before the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system was too
academic, theoretically oriented and failed to address the needs and
aspirations of the Nation. The system turned out job seekers instead of
job creators. The search for a functional curriculum, which will address
the needs and yearning of the nation, led to the emergence of the 6- 3-
3-4 system in 1982. The curriculum contains among other things
pre-vocational subjects, which included introductory technology; Home
Economics and Business Education, which are compulsory at the Junior
Introductory technology as an integrated
subject included- woodwork, metal work, basic electricity /electronics,
building construction, technical drawing, plastic and rubber
technology, and auto/ mechanical work. Introductory technology lays the
foundation for the acquisition of skills and knowledge that are basic
for technological development. The skills and knowledge acquired at the
this level will equip the students to be self reliant if they are unable
to study beyond the Junior Secondary School Level.
According to Nnadi (1988) “The new
system would ensure that the basic foundation is laid easily for the
acquisition and utilization of knowledge and skill on which the
technological programme the country would continue to depend”. It is
intended that the programme would launch Nigeria into the technological
new world order.
It is sad to mention that resources are
grossly inadequate for the teaching of this important subject in our
schools, especially schools in Calabar, Cross River State where, in some
places, buildings to house the equipment / machines do not exist, while
in some places there and building, equipment and machines but no
electricity and workshop exist there by making it difficult for the
equipment / machines to be installed.
It is not only the material resources that are in short supply but also human resources and ideologies.
Adigin (1974 :137) indicated that
“evidence, abounds to show that the supply of introductory technology
teachers is grossly inadequate both in number and quality. Although the
literature has shown that there is acute shortage of resources for the
teaching of the subject, in other places, it is equally important to
ascertain the extent of the factors militating against the performance
of students in introductory technology in Cross River State, basically
in Calabar Municipal Council Area of the state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
After graduation of students studying
Introductory Technology from the Junior Secondary School Level of
Education, they hardly exhibit simple technological skills; hence they
fail in most of the challenges they face while in the labour market.
With the lack of knowledge of tools and poor standard workshop
arrangement, lack of competent instructor, poor guidance and counseling
an vast curriculum, all result to some of the factors militating against
the performance of students in Introductory Technology in the Junior
Secondary School Level.
The questions addressed are as follows:
- What effects does the curriculum has on the performance of the students in Introductory Technology?
- What effects does the available resources for the teaching of introductory technology has on the students?
- What effects does the motivation of technical teachers have on the performance of students in Introductory Technology?
- What effects does effective guidance and counseling has on the performance of Introductory Technology Students?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to
investigate the factors militating against the performance of students
in introductory technology at the Junior secondary school level in
Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State precisely, the study
- Determine the factors responsible for the poor performance of students in Introductory Technology.
- Assess the condition of services of technical teachers.
- Address the need for students’ guidance and counseling in schools.
- Assess the effectiveness and efficiency of introductory technology teachers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The investigations of the study will
enable education policy markers in Government, administrators of
schools, classroom teachers, industries and the society at large to be
aware of the problem of students poor performance introductory
technology in the Junior Secondary school level of education, which if
not tackled with care can hinder move towards the country’s
The outcome of the study will help
technological teachers to adjust and correct their lapses and improve on
them efforts made so far for better performance.
Most importantly, students will benefit
from the results of this study immensely, in that they will seek proper
counseling for purposeful progress in their respective career choice in
Finally, the result of this study will be of immense benefit to practicing technical education teachers to be.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Do teachers really cover the introductory technology scheme of work?
- What are the available resources for the teaching / learning of introductory technology in Nigeria secondary schools?
- What is the rate of utilization of the resources in the teaching /learning of introductory technology for national development?
- What efforts are being made by school administrators and the
Government to encourage technical teachers for effective participation
in Nigeria School?
- What are the effects and relevance of guidance and counseling in Nigeria secondary schools for technological development?
The work of this study was confirmed to Twelve(12) Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipal Area of Cross River State.
Out of the twelve schools, three are private schools and Nine are government owned secondary schools.
The researcher was faced with some
human, financial and physical problems such as time, finance and
disappointing confrontations; hence he could not cover all the parts of
the states in the study.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
With genuine attestation to this study, it was assured that:
- The respondents’ information gathered are authentic and genuine.
- The teachers used in the study are ideal respondents.
- The data analysis computation is correct.
- The population sample used is large enough to be a representative of
the total population with respect to the limited time involved.