AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE UTILIZATION OF MULTIMEDIA IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CERAMIC IN JUNIORSECONDARYSCHOOLS IN OSUN STATES
This study was intended to investigate the utilization of
multimedia in teaching and learning of ceramics in junior secondary schools in
Osun State. This study was guided by the following objectives;
investigate the available multimedia
facilities in schools for the teaching and learning of ceramics, determine the
level of utilization of multimedia facilities in teaching and learning
ceramics, examine the limitations and challenges of teachers and students in
the use of multimedia in teaching and learning ceramics, find out the perceptions of the
teachers and students towards teaching and learning ceramics with the aid of
The study employed the descriptive design;
questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect
data. The population for this study comprised
both teachers and students in the junior secondary category (middle school) in
Osun State. Primary data sources (questionnaire) were used for
data collection which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The
respondents under the study were 120 junior secondary school students selected from five
public schools using stratified sampling technique.
The study findings revealed that the available multimedia facilities in
schools for teaching and learning of ceramics include but not limited to
photography. That the level of utilization of multimedia
facilities in teaching and learning of ceramics is low as about 83.3 percent of
the respondents attests to this assertion.
will serve as a compass for government and School administrators in the process
of policies formulation and implementation. Both the teachers and students in
schools will also find this research study very useful in the process of making
some vital classroom decision through use of multimedia.
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - -
1.2 Statement of General Problem - - - -
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - -
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1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - -
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - -
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - -
TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
2.1. An Overview of Ceramics- - - - - - - -
2.2. Types and
Nature of Multimedia Instructional Materials- -
2.3.1 Multimedia in Teaching of Ceramics - - - - -
of Multimedia in an Educational Setting- - - -
2.3.3 Influences of Multimedia on a Student’s
Performance - -
of Junior Secondary School Fine Art Curriculum Implementation- - - - - - - - -
of Fine Art Studio in Junior Secondary Schools- - - - - - - - -
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2.5. Methods of Teaching Ceramics - - - - - -
2.6. Factors Affecting Teaching and Learning of
Fine Art - -
THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - -
3.3 Area of the Study - - - - - - - -
3.4 Population of Study - - - - - - - -
3.5 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - - - -
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - -
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - -
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - -
3.9 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - -
3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -
FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - - -
Analysis - - - - - - - - -
4.4 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - - -
of Findings - - - - - - - -
4.6 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -
FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - -
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Appendix - - - - - - - - - -
to the Study
Multimedia is a term frequently
heard and discussed among educational technologists today. Unless clearly
defined, the term can alternatively mean the development of computer based
hardware and software packages produced on a mass scale and yet allow individualized
use and learning. In essence, multimedia merges multiple levels of learning
into an educational tool that allows for diversity in curricula presentation.
Mayer (2001) views multimedia as the exciting combination of computer hardware
and software that allows you to integrate video, animation, audio graphics and
test resources to develop effective presentation on an affordable desktop
computer. But Philips (1990) opines that “Multimedia is characterized by the
presence of text, pictures, sound animation and video, some or all of which are
organized into some colorant programme. However, today’s multimedia is a
carefully woven combination of text, graphic, sound, animation and video
elements. If the end user is allowed i.e. the viewer of a multimedia project,
is allowed to control “what ““when” and ’’how’’ the elements are presented, it
becomes interactive multimedia.
such, multimedia can be defined as an integration of multiple media elements
(audio, video, graphic, text animation, etc.) into one synergetic and symbiotic
whole that results in more benefit for the end user than any of the media
element can provide individually.
At the inception of the 6-3-3-4
system of education, Fine and Applied Arts where the study of ceramics is
subsumed was a core subject at the junior secondary school level, but elective
at the senior secondary.
After the review
of the National Policy on Education, Fine Arts remained one of the core
subjects that all students must register for at the junior secondary school level.
However, good as the policy is, there are factors militating against the
successful implementation of the policy. They include: lack of relevant and
up-to-date teaching materials, space, facilities, shortage of qualified and experienced Fine Art teachers.
In addition, many of the current graduates are found to be lacking in
creativity, communication skills, analytical and critical thinking and
problem-solving skill which is occurred from juniorsecondaryschools level (Teo
Wong 200). As such, there is much need for institutions of higher learning to focus
on training future graduate to be more adaptable to the needs of the industry from
the SecondarySchool level.
many juniorsecondaryschools in OsunState are employing problem-based learning
as a panacea to building creativity, analytical thinking and problem solving
skills. Hence, some schools have embraced the use of multimedia for enhancing
the production of ceramics such as mug, cup, jug, flower vase, pottery tiles,
etc. This attempt is a laudable one as it makes students in their junior
secondary school level acquire the necessary skill and knowledge before getting
to the higher institution. This learning mode is constructivistapproach whereby
the students participate actively in their own learning process and construct
their own knowledge (Jonasseu and Willson 1999).
uses of multimedia in teaching and learning ceramics have been foundeffective
in increasing knowledge, skills and retention rates. Research has shown that
people remember 20% of what they see, 40% of what they see and hear, but about
75% of what they see, hear and do simultaneously (Lindstron1994).This is especially
significant in the CBT (Computer Based Learning) modules in corporations like Ernst&
Young and Union Pacific, where students are taught ceramic artwork in the juniorsecondaryschool
is now permeating the educational system as a tool for effective teaching and
learning. With multimedia, communication of the information can be done in a
more effective manner and it can be an effective instructional medium for
delivering information. A multi-sensory experience can be created for the
audience, which in turn elicits positive attitudes towards the application.
Multimedia has also been shown to elicit the highest rate of information
retention and shorter learning time (Ng and Komiya, 2000). On the part of the designer,
designing a multimedia application that is interactive and multi-sensory can be
both a challenge and a thrill. Multimedia application design offers new
insights into the learning process of the designer and forces him or her to
represent information and knowledge in a new and innovative way in teaching and
learning ceramics (Agnew, Keller man and Meyer 1996).
increasing use of multimedia in teaching and learning of ceramics to students in
juniorsecondaryschools is an issue that should receive adequate governmentattention.
Even the majority of teachers believe that the nation’sschools will be improved
if the federal government could put in place educational policies whichwill
encourage students to learn ceramics art subject as their career (kichatdson
1993). However, the quest for using multimedia in teaching and learning of ceramics
would not be easily accomplished without understanding the obstacles into
implementation of teaching and learning of ceramics and how to overcome them.
of the Problem
has been observed Fine Art as a subject as a subject in the junior secondary
schools in Nigeria faces severe problems in relation to its curriculum content
and delivery by the Fine Art teachers. However it is unfortunate to observe
that Ceramics as an area in Fine Art has been neglected by the learners and its
content delivery by teachers has not been that impressive.
has been observed by some researchers that teaching and learning of Fine Art,
which the study ceramics is subsumed in, in secondary schools was bedeviled
with multi-dimensional problems which impede successful implementation of the curriculum.
At the centre, the most clear learning problems are the teachers who are
ill-equipped for the task ahead, unqualified, complexity of the curriculum, inadequacy
of instructional facilities for example, multimedia facilities.
view of the above, this research work is set to solve the problems of both
academic failureand practical experiences in teaching and learning ceramics in
Fine Art and improve the academic performance of students through the use of
multimedia facilities in teaching the curriculum of Fine Art as a subject by
finding out the level of the utilization of multimedia facilities in teaching
and learning ceramics in the juniors secondaryschools in Osun State.
general objective of this study is to investigatethe utilization ofmultimedia
in teaching and learning of ceramics in juniorsecondaryschools in Osun State.
The specific objectives of this study are to:
the available multimedia facilities in schools for the teaching and learning of
the level of utilization of multimedia facilities in teaching and learning ceramics;
the limitations and challenges of teachers and students in the use of
multimedia in teaching and learning ceramics;
out the perceptions of the teachers and students towards teaching and learning
ceramics with the aid of multimedia.
Towards the attainment of the objectives of this
study, the study intends to provide answers to the following questions:
there available multimedia facilities in schools for the teaching and learning
is the level of utilization of multimedia facilities in teaching and learning ceramics?;
are the limitations and challenges of teachers and students using multimedia in
teaching and learning ceramics?; and
4. what are the perceptions of the
teachers and students towards teaching and learning ceramics with the aid of
1.5. Significance of the Study
result of this study will be significant through the following ways:
findings will help policy makers realize that the world is becoming a global village
with varieties of multimedia facilities that can enhance teaching andlearning.
It will serve as a compass for government and School administrators in the
process of policies formulation and implementation. Both the teachers and
students in schools will also find this research study very useful in the
process of making some vital classroom decision through use of multimedia.
This study will serve as an opener
to both multimedia and ceramics art subject teachers,as well as students. It
will make meaningful reflections on the various factors that are responsible
for excellent academic performance of students in teaching and learning of
ceramics in the juniorsecondaryschool.
School teachers will be able to
know how helpful multimedia immensely contribute to the effectiveness of
teaching and learning of ceramic JuniorSecondarySchool level with their efforts
to build a better Nigerian by giving qualitative education to the younger ones.
government at different levels will be able to see the critical appraisal of
multimedia involvement in the educational system and thereby encouraging them
to participate in the sector.
Also, on a final note, educators,
teachers School administrators will benefit from the finding of this research
work in their adventurous of improving the academic performance of students.
study is on the investigation into the use of multimedia in teaching and
learning ceramics junior secondary school in Osun State. The research shall be
restricted to students and teachers in public junior secondary schools in Osun
1.7. Definition of Terms
the purpose of this study, the following terms will be used. They include:
is a reflection of how individual expresses his or her own inner feeling or
emotion. It is also known as the individual’s ability to manipulate art
materials to express his or her emotion on a flat surface whether in the two or
three dimensional way.
Ceramics is known as art objects such as flower vases, tiles, and tableware’setc.made
from clay and other raw materials by the process of pottery. Some ceramics
products are regarded as fine art, while others are regarded as decorative,
industrial or applied art objects or as artifacts in archaeology.
resources:This is things used to meet an educational need i.e.
building, staff, equipment, ideas and materials. In other words, instructional
resources aredevices used to enhance intellectual development.
It refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. This
contracts with media that use only rudimentary computer display such as text
only or traditional forms of printed or hand produced material. It can also be
refers to as a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or
interactivity content forms
resources: This comprise of varieties of input materials in
the educational system. They may include teacher,non-teaching staff, facilities
and equipment as well as other monetary inputs used in the educational system.
education is a form of education children received after the primary school and
before the tertiary education. Government planned that secondary education
should be of six years duration and shall be given in two stages of three years
duration each. This implies that the students will pass through the JuniorSecondarySchool
(JSS) and sit for the JuniorSecondarySchool examination before being awarded
the JuniorSchoolCertificate. In the same vein, the successful JuniorSchool Certificate
examination (JSCE) graduates are admitted into the Senior SecondarySchool (SSS)
and aspired to do the West African Senior SchoolCertificate Examination
(WASSCE) and/ or the National Examination Council (NECO) to obtain Senior School
Certificate Examination (SSCE).
It can be defined as the first three years of children in the SecondarySchool
level in which simply known as JuniorSecondarySchool before he/she sits for the
JuniorSecondary Certificate Examination and being awarded the JuniorSchool Certificate
method:This is the different ways in which teacher employed
to impart knowledge on the studentsor learners. They include among others,
demonstration method, lecture method, discussion method etc.