EVALUATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COLLEGE,
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Guidance and counselling is a field of study that has been
introduced in our school curriculum in order to produce professionally
trained personnel who will render retentive and problem solving services
to individuals or group in all area of life shows that its services are
needed almost every where both hospitals, nursing home, rehabilitation
centre, schools, banks, social welfare’ units, police stations, church
and mosque e.t.c although here in Nigeria, the services of guidance and
counselling is most pronounced in the schools.
The knowledge of guidance and counseling is most pronounce who
practically applied to students to guide tern against problem that might
arise due to wrong decision making and action and also aim at
proffering solution to existing problems.
The existence of guidance “and counselling can be said to be as old
as mankind, right from creation, man has never been all-knowing; he
lacks knowledge in one things or the other and there fore seeks help
from other people towards the solution of his problems.
Traditionally, the importance of guidance and counselling can not
be over emphasized people sought for advice and help from other who are
more knowledgeable, experienced or rise from solution of their problems,
the traditional counselling could be those men and women who possessed
supernatural power of healing, foreseeing the future and mediating
between man and the god, these people served as consultant and then
preferred solution to most of the problem brought before them due to the
simplicity of man and his environment then.
However, due to the complexity of the environment and the society
at large, the overall philosophy and objectives of the nation of the
word, the service provided by the traditional counseling apparently
become inadequate. Various problems and confusion are encountered by
people in all areas of human Endeavour as Rocher (1991 .1) notes;
With the tremendous increase in the number of students in the
institution of higher learning extremely wide range of course of study
and job opportunities, rapid charging mo/work of work and great
complexity of students needs and problems, there is a definite need for
providing a fine nucleus of guidance and counseling by matured,
experience and professionally qualified person for the development of
all the unique potentialities of the students for individual fulfillment
in particular and social (p1) and natural upliftment in Nigeria.
This fact makes tend to have professionally trained guidance and
counseling personnel in all works of life especially in our Educational
institution very compelling this win minimized what would have been in
mistakes to a very minimal and bearable degree.
From the aforesaid, there is no doubt that the realization of our
Education institution objectives depends mostly on a full guidance and
counseling programme. The Federal Government of Nigeria is realized its
immense importance of therefore is regarded it’s as a vital tool for the
realization of the national objective and clearly state in that
National Policy on Education that;
In view of apparent ignorance of many young people about career
prospects and in view of personality maladjustment among school
children, career offices and counseling will be appointed in post
primary institution. (F.G.N 1998 p43).
Base on this, “counseling is expected to be on integral cost
effective component of the Educational process aimed at curbing wastage
of talent and enhancing appropriate decision making and personal
According to Denga (1986) “it was also envisaged tat by 1980, a school in Nigeria”.
However, in spite of this laudable gesture by the Federal
Government and the higher expectation and aspiration of people, there
seen to have been no impressive impact of Educational institution. Many
students clue to parental, peer groups, societal (environmental)
influenced among other reasons make devastating mistakes that hamper
their happiness in life and add to the already existing societal
It is therefore very pertinent that most of the ill and vice in our
society should be check through our institutions of learning to achieve
this effort should be made to improve the situation through guidance
and counseling programme school especially in our secondary school where
most of the Educational and societal problems have their foundation.
To this effort therefore, the Federal Government of Nigeria come up
with the National policy on Education with, emphasis on the
introduction of guidance and counseling in our schools. This fact gives
rise to this study which focuses attention on the evaluation of guidance
and counseling programmes in secondary school in Nasarawa state.
According to the information made available by Mallam A. in his
book titled “Guidance and counselling beginners guidance (page 11)
(2000) the practice of guidance and counselling is not new in the
society right from the creation and early time, the need for man to
exist well in his society and satisfy his wants have been there, man
exist in ignorance and when guided, he performs and achieves his optimum
Also in the traditional society our fore fathers practiced guidance
and counselling, they led their children through a vocation e.g
Fishing, caving, weaving and wood cutting.
But modem guidance and counselling as practiced now in our school
system originated for America in the Late Eighteen ninety (1890s). It
started with complicated environment force couple with social force such
as Family disorganization, mental / health movement programme the
increasing student population problem who terribly, literogeneous terms
of their learning readiness, professional and psychological worries and
many other problems that live of the people.
Frank Parson of Boston viewed the above problem and saw the need
for starting a vocational guidance in 1908 whom today is regarded as the
Father of guidance. Frank Parson wrote a book on choosing a career or a
vocation in 1909.
In his book parson (1908) outlined the three phases in dealing with problems of vocational choice as follows;
1) Knowing the person: through understanding of the person through the data collected about him or her.
2) Knowing the job: Understanding the work and the nature of the desired job entry requirement, condition for advancement and other remunerations.
3) Making a match between the person and job based on a reasoned consideration of the two factor above
Another notable contributor to the movement was Jessie B. Danes who
applied the process of career in choice laid down by person to locate
himself in teaching profession. In addition he emphasized the
development of character in his book, moral and vocational guidance
services in settle Washington where she helped students to excel in the
stiff competition to find a place in life since then guidance and
counselling as a discipline has been adopted in many countries of the
word including Nigeria by Annay Reed established.
1.2.1 THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN NIGERIA
However, the development of guidance and counselling in Nigeria
according to Mallam A. Yakubu (2000) is started at the close of 1959
when a group of reverend Irish sisters at St. Theresa’s college,
Oko-Ado, ion Ibadan saw the need for vocational guidance of the final
year school. Certificate female student of their college. Then invited
twenty (20) outsiders who were Government officials from the ministries
and some prominent men from Ibadan community to advice them on placing
of sixty (60) of their girls leaving school that December, 1959. These
men were not trained counselors but they definitely know more about the
emerging word of work than the students and the religious sisters. This
led to the establishment of Ibadan career council in 1961. The same body
became Nigeria career council in 1967.
According to Akingboye (1907) and Donga (1983) can be traced back
to the effort of the publication in 1977 of the National policy on
Education which under scoped the need for the programme. It also
outlined its significance toward the effective implementation of the
Nation’s now Education policy the 6-3-34 system.
This new system of Education gives the students an ample
opportunity to use the first three years of secondary school Education
to explore all the subject areas both in art and, science to determine
where be or she fits in well. The student is also exposed to different
vocations to make himself retired after his Education. Thus, the
formation of guidance and counselling body called Nigeria career
counselling in 1967 for the dissemination of career information and
attending to problems relevant to careers. So to support this white man
in 1961 to serve in the Federal ministry of Education.
This source has it that this official gesture went a long way to
stimulate and guidance and counselling in the then western Nigeria which
has already established an advised teachers collage at Ibadan that the
fist worship on vocational guidance and counselling in Nigeria was
organized in 1961 by the Federal ministry of Education.
From all indication, it can be deduced that the first indigenous
few fledge department of guidance and counselling in Nigeria started at
the University of 1.badan in 1975 and the inauguration of the
counselling association of Nigeria (CASSON) in 1967 at the some
Today, one is glad to observe that many universities in Nigeria –
Ibadan, Jog, Ilorin, Nsuka, Benin, Zaria, Abuja, among other have
programmes for training of guidance and counselling specialists.
However, there are still some teaching problems militating against
its defective’s growth. Examples of those problems are: – Lack of fund,
lack of office accommodation, and shortage of training counselors and so
on this is fully described in chapter two.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The emergence of guidance and counselling in our Educational
systems is very timely given the type of society we found ourselves.
Despite it’s a numerous advantages to the systems, the discipline if
aced with a lot of problems which are militating against its effective –
hence this research undertake her research work to evaluate the
guidance and counselling programme in some selected secondary schools in
Lafia area inspectorate office, Nasarawa state.
To do this the researcher will seek the answer to:
1) Area the trained personnel available?
2) Area the necessary facilities to make the job of the guidance and counselling effectives provided?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to evaluate the guidance and counselling
programmed in secondary schools under study. To achieve her objective,
the researcher will critically examine the way and manner the programme
is run in the state so- as to:
1. Determine the extent of development of the programme in the area under study
2. Identify the major factor affecting the performance in the state.
3. Gives suggestion on how to improves on the programme.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is important because if diligently carried out will
serve as a tool to identify the extreme of development of guidance and
counselling programme in the state and identify the major fact that
hampers its effectives utilization as one of the Educational for
services iii the realization of the Nation objective utilization as and
goal. The result of the finding will direct all individual or group to
the contribute positively to the realization of the general objective of
the new Educational objectives.
So for, the students; this research wok will make him enhance and
self fulfillment because it will help him to appreciate the guidance and
counselling services and to use it to achieves his life goals.
For the parents this research work Will makes tern to re-organized
themselves and modify their demands and expectation on the students in
the light of changing friend in the society.
For the principal it will make him realized that guidance and
counseling is a relevant tool to the realization of Education objectives
as contained in the 6-3-3-4 system of Education. It will also help him
to maintain and evaluate attitudes of student to words the performance.
The principal promotes guidance programme for his school e.g he present
the proposals and report to the Government through the ministry of
Education on the require for guidance service in his school.
For Teacher, it will enable him know his defined roles in the
Education of the student and avoid duplication of efforts. For
Government, it will help to have first hand information on the handicaps
of the schools and striver to provide necessary assistance for
effective guidance and counselling programmes.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the course of study, the following are question will be answered.
i. How Qualified are the counselor?
ii. Do counselor have enough facilities to work with
iii. Are student willing to visit the counselors.
iv. What is the relationship between the counselor and their colleagues in the school?
v. Is there enough fund for the counselors to discharge their professional duties.
1.6 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
In this study, the researcher assumes that:
i. There are inadequate trained counselors in Nasarawa state.
ii. There is low level of awareness of the
existence and the importance of the programme among the students in the
area under study.
iii. Counselor lacks private office accommodation and other necessary facilities.
iv. There is no enough funds and time allocated to counselling is hardly adequate.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The researcher intends to evaluate the guidance and counselling
programme in some selected secondary in Loko Development Area office
For effectiveness some school were randomly selected in Loko Development Area inspectorate office. They are:
i. Government secondary school Loko
ii. Government Junior secondary school Loko
iii. Government secondary school Aisa
iv. Government secondary school Aza
However, the target population is restricted to senior secondary school SSS 1-3
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of clarification and easy understanding, the
researcher has chosen, to define some of the terms used in this study as
they relate to Education.
GUIDANCE:- Is assistance made available by
personally qualified and adequately trained man and woman to an
individual of any age to help him manage his own activities, develop his
own point of views, maker his own decision and carry his own burden”
Crow and Crew (1960).COUNSELLING: – A process by which a
person with problem is helped by a professional counselor or
voluntarily change his behaviour clarify his attitude, Ideas and goals
so that his problem may be solved” Idowu (1986). It is a one to one face
to face in relationship between a counselor and a client.
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING: – This is an Educational service given to the student to help them most their need, aspirations, objectives and goals.
COUNSELLOR: – One who is professionally trained
and qualified to provide help toward solving the problem of a trouble
person who cannot cope with his problem alone and need a qualified
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter the researcher review related literature that covers:
1. The need for evaluation
2. Concepts of guidance and counselling
3. Objectives and goals of guidance and counselling
4. Type of guidance service
5. Qualities of a counselor
6. Function of the school counselor
7. Pertinent opinion guidance and counselling on the;
a. Need for guidance and counseling services
b. Problem that hinder the effectiveness of guidance and counselling programme in Nigeria schools.
2.2 THE NEED FOR EVALUATION
In all area of human endeavours, evaluation of the past and present
action is done so as to improve in future pursuits. Citizen of a nation
utilize evaluation process in judging and making decision concerning
many areas of life, salaries promotion, job termination, retirement
among other event at home people evaluate their life styles and make
necessary changes and decision concerning the improvement of the
In the institution of learning, students teachers, (…) and
institution programme are periodically evaluated so as to maintain or
improve on Educational system
The scenarios above show that evolution is a driver so activity
which people do everyday. Thus Unachukwu and lgborgbor (1.99 I) defined
Evaluation as a process for appreciating the value of effectiveness
of a programme or activity”, to this effect, they identify the
following as the need for evaluating of guidance and counselling.
I. To discover any loopholes and limitation
of guidance and counseling programme and effort made towards remedying
II. To ascertain how true or other wise
certain acclamation of the importance of guidance and counselling
programme is through the establishment of evidence.
Form the foregoing; there are two prominent characteristics of evaluation.
i. It involves judgment of work and value and
ii. It is related to the decision making process.
Therefore, there is the need to periodically evaluate our
Educational programmes, which guidance and counselling is one, if the
aim and objectives of Education are to be achieved especially in the
6-3-3-4 system to the effect, Ezeugu (1911) remarks unless programme are
properly evaluated, education will have no basic for decision making on
opinion, Unachukwu and Igbobor (1991) in a specific from says,
“Evaluation of guidance programme is an important part of any on-going
guidance activity” it is only through a systematic and continuous
programme of evaluation. That the guidance services in any guidance and
counselling setting can improve and grow.
Summarily, evaluation en be said to be carried out to asses extent
to which set objective have been achieved in order to effect necessary
change for improvement.