study aimed at examining the effects of economics instructional materials on
the learning and teaching of economics as well the effects of these
instructional materials on the academic performance of some secondary school
students in some selected secondary schools in Isolo Local Government Area of
Lagos state. A well designed and simple questionnaire was distributed to
economics teachers in these selected schools to accurately evaluate the effect
of instructional materials on the application of learning economics in
secondary schools in Nigeria.
methodology used for the study, the researcher adopted the survey research
design with a sample size of twenty (20) teachers and eighty (80) students
selected using a stratified sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data
was used for the study. Questionnaires formed the basis for primary data for the
study, while text books, internet, journals and magazines were the secondary
sources of data for the study.
finding after testing hypothesis three indicates that there will be a
significant positive difference in the performance of secondary school students
in Economics language when they are taught the subject with instructional
materials. The use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Economics
obviously improves the performance of students.
Schools should provide enough instructional
materials to enable teachers clarify their lesson. Adequate infrastructure
facilities and conclusive atmosphere are Sine Qua Non for effective learning
and retention of what is learnt. Schools should send their Economics teachers
to seminars and workshops in order to up date their knowledge.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE
influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic
performance and teaching and learning in educational development is
indisputable. The teaching of Economics in Nigerian secondary schools needs to
be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home
their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our
education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical
classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to
Instructional materials are materials which assist
teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to
transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola (1997).
Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures,
flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers
among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of
Economics as a subject came into existence in 1776
via the publication of Adam Smith - the protagonist of the classical school of
thought; and since then, it has assumed many roles especially in both political
and educational circles. The study of Economics is dichotomised into two major
parts, namely microeconomics and macroeconomics. While microeconomics studies
the behaviour and operations of the individual units (households, firms and
government agencies) in the economy, macroeconomics studies the entire economy
in aggregates and averages (Umoh, 2007). According to Aromolaran (2006), three
major languages are used in teaching and communicating Economic ideas. These
languages include theory or verbal, geometric or graphical, and algebraic or
Economics is an important subject that must be
credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution
especially the university to study relevant courses like Accountancy, Business
Administration, Insurance, etc. The importance and technicality of this subject
makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to
teach it to the learners. This fact is supported by Macaulay (1989) who asserts
that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better.
It is against this background that this study
attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of instructional
materials could advance senior secondary school students performance in
academic achievement in Economics could be attributed to many factors among which
teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies
that the mastery of Economics concepts might not be fully achieved without the
use of instructional materials. The teaching of Economics without instructional
materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer ,
Okebukola and Jegede (1992) stressed that a professionally qualified science
teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice
if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or
her to translate his competence into reality.
(2002) opined that Science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic
recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and
equipment for the teaching of Economics in schools adequately. A situation that
is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at
times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found
expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally.
such as Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002) reported that there were inadequate
resources for teaching Science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. They
further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions.
There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola,
(2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity,
curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only
realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with
passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria,
for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication
of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning
outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released,
there has always been mass failure in Economics. The reason for this could be
ascribed to the fact that there are topics in Economics that pose serious
problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively
without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning practical.
On the foregoing, scholars like Mutebi and Matora (1994) have emphasized the
effect of instructional materials utilisation on teaching and learning.
According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we
discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or
practice. However, the questions here are: does the use of instructional
materials really influence students’ academic performance? Is teaching
effectiveness enhanced by the use of instructional materials?
Could students’ learning be advanced by the use of
instructional materials? Finding answers to these questions and more summarizes
the entire problem of this study.
1.3 OBJECTIES OF
The objectives of this study are:
To examine the
influence of instructional material utilisation on the teaching of Economics in
Senior Secondary Schools in Lagos State;
To ascertain the extent
to which Senior Secondary School student’s learning of Economics can be
influenced by the use of instructional materials
To determine whether
there will be any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools
students in Economics due to the use of instructional materials.
In order to achieve the objectives of this study,
the following research questions were raised to guide the investigation:
Will the use of
instructional materials influence the teaching and application of Economics in
senior secondary schools?
To what extent can
senior secondary school students’ learning of Economics be influenced by the
use of instructional materials?
Will there be any
difference in the academic performance of senior secondary school students in
Economics due to the use of instructional materials?
The following null hypotheses were stated for the
The use of
instructional materials will not have significant influence on the teaching of
Economics in senior secondary schools.
The use of
instructional material will not have significant influence on secondary school
students’ learning of Economics.
There will be no
significant difference in the performance of students in Economics due to the
use of instructional materials.
OF THE STUDY
The use of instructional materials gives the learner
opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning
process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels
of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with
relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the
significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners,
educational system and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional
materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have
learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This
is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which
knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and
utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of
The study would help enhance teachers’ teaching
effectiveness and productivity. This is in line with assertion of Ekwueme and
Igwe (2001) who noted that it is only the teachers who will guarantee effective
and adequate usage of instructional materials and thereby facilitate success.
Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to
supplement his teaching will help enhance students’ innovative and creative
thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.
Oremeji (2002) supportively asserts that any teacher who takes advantage of
these resources and learns to use them correctly will find that they make almost
an incalculable contribution to instruction. He further says that instructional
materials are of high value in importing information, clarifying difficult and
abstract concepts, stimulating thought, sharpening observation, creating
interest and satisfying individual difference.
The study is also significant to the educational
system and society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their
teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the
knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be
able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s
economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of
life and work.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE
This study is focused on investigating the effect of
instructional material utilisation on advancing senior secondary school
students’ performance in Economics in Lagos State. Due to time and financial
constraints, the study is limited to Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos.
This is because the researcher resides in this local government area and as
such had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area and
its environs. Besides, the study involves only the S.S-2 students of the senior
secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State.
only limitation faced by the researcher in the course of carrying out this
study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most
respondents were reluctant in filling questionnaires administered to them due
to their busy schedules and nature of their work. The researcher found it
difficult to collect responses from the various respondents, and this almost
hampered the success of this study.
The relevant terms below were operationally defined
relative to their usage in this study.
This is the change (outcome) that is brought about in a person (s) or something
by another person (s) or thing; that is the way in which an event, action or
person changes someone or something.
§ Academic performance:
This is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills, shown in the
school subjects such achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks
assigned by teachers. It is the school evaluation of students’ classroom work
as quantified on the basis of marks or grades.
§ Utilisation: The
act of using something to achieve a purpose
§ Instructional Material:
What the teacher uses to make the lesson
more interesting and understandable.