CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
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CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
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2.1 Literature Review
In a research work of this magnitude, there ought to be existing
work in the form of literatures to assist the researcher. But
unfortunately there are quite a few. However, this research work with
the existing literature in this area of study will add to the existing
work on the subject matter.
2.2 Child Abuse and its Causes in Nigeria
Different forms of child abuse have characterized the history of
hitherto existing society. Viewed from the western matrix, child abuse
extends to several maltreatment children; mostly with regards to
functions relating to certain responsibilities as child labour either in
the form of “framework” “street hawking”, which many children in
African embark upon as an acquired work role in an extended family
system. But however, this study basically is on child hawking, as it
affect educational development of the child.
One aspect of child maltreatment which has attracted serious
attention of researchers (Gill 2000 and Abbee, 2000) is physical abuse
It then follows that the whom issue of child hawking requires a
thorough assessment for the purpose of justification of terms, C.P Ekpe
and Bowls (2006) saw child hawking and neglect as acts consisting of
commission or omission, which interfere with the chance to develop their
normal potentials as human beings. He went further to itemized child
hawking as that which implies physical or mental injury, negligent
treatment or maltreatment.
In this case the child suffers from lack of attention by parent
manifested by malnutrition and lack of stimulation, Chris postulated
that any definition of child abuse should take cognizance of the form
of abuse including physical assault, psychological or emotional and
Ewuruigwe and Naidu (2008) have discovered that there is a direct
relationship between child hawking and poverty. They found out that the
need for survival often pushes some children to secure employment
outside the home.
According to Naidu (2004) poverty and irregularity are the major
causes of child hawking that of other factor of child labour like
psychological, social and cultural factors are interdependence with the
economic system in which these factor operate, “Ewuruijwe (1998)
identified the causes of child hawking that all other factors of child
labour like psychological, social and cultural factors are
interdependent with the economic system in which these factors
operate.” Ewuruigwe (1998) identified the causes of child hawking in a
number of factors. In his words poverty, the interesting of global
network capitalism, shifting family structure, the nature of the state
and mode of production as well as religion.
Egbigbo (2002) also stated that in eastern and western parts of
Nigeria children trade for their house madams and parents to help in
the family economy. Some also earn their school fees by hawking those
who attended afternoon schools hawks in the morning and those who
attend morning school hawk in the afternoon.
On the cultural aspect of child abuse, Naidu and Obikeze (1986)
stressed the role of culture in child upbringing Obikeze pointed out
that the children are reared in Nigeria in such a way that they are made
to practice or do domestic works that are commensurate with their age,
soc and physical ability such activities serve to provide the child
with accessory skills and training required for future life.
Vinolia and Fubara (1996) had it that: here in Nigeria our child
rearing pattern has been affected by our culture/ethnic setting as well
as our social class. Each social class tends to have its social values
and expectation likewise the ethnic groups.
They further added that because children are seen as God sent,
African parents give birth to too many children as to have many
Schilakrout (1998) in her stuck of Kano cultural practices stated
that “while a clear relationship scale among the majority of family in
the middle income range, many cultural factors intervenes which are
independent of economic factors”.
More so, in a study carried out by prime people magazine (Jan 26th
and Feb 1st 2003) almost half of the respondents 50% agreed the fact
that female hawkers entice man with their mode of dressing when
And this they say sometimes, lead to the ungodly act of rape and early unwanted pregnancy among female hawkers.
In fact, many scholars are of the view that the nature of society
influence child labour; and that child labour in recent times became an
instrument of class oppression in spite of the increasing cases of
child abuse world wide, leaders every where have not thrown up their
hand in pair.
On November, 20 1959 the 44th generation assembly of the united
nation adopted the convention on the rights of the child. The
convention has been variously described and magina carts or “bill of
right: for children, it has fifty four (54) articles detailing the
individual rights of any person under eighteen (18) years of age of
develop to his or her full potential free from hunger and want neglect
exploitation or other abuses.
Four of the convention articles specified signatory of national of
which Nigeria is one, are obliged to recognize that every child has
the inherent right to life and ensure the full survival and development
of the child. Nigeria became a signatory of this convention in 1980.
But twenty years before the federal government has operated the
children any young persons law section 31 of the 1958 law forbid street
trading among children.
Apart from providing a penalty and firm of N10,000.000 or six
(6)months jail terms of both for an offender, the law further states
that where a parent or guardian of a child contributes to the willful
default of law, such parent on conviction may be fined N10,000.000 or
in default or payment of three (3) months jails.
Based on these declarations at home and abroad, it is now a law
that a child has the right to assistances before developing his full
potentials and to be protected from all harms.
A child has the right to a good food, educations, good health,
shelter, free play, he also has the right to participate, according to
his capability in decision affecting him and the interest of the child
should be taken into consideration when decision concerning such child
Therefore, any serious denial of any of these rights by a community an individual, or a nation is offensive.
The African Network for the prevention and protection against
child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) also drafted the African character on
the rights and welfare of the child and was adopted by the African
Union (A.U) then the A.U went to a head a named “June 16th of every
year as the day of the African child. This also constituted a central
agenda in an A.U meeting held in Abuja Nigeria recently.
Street trading and child labour have become a global phenomenon
and a global concern. The United nations international children
education fund (UNICEF) has estimated that there are 100 to 200 million
child labourers across both industrials and developing countries.
Estimates for Africa shows that 20% of children between the age of 10
to 14 are involved in child labour and street trading. As such, children
have come to comprise 17% of Africa’s total labour force. Nigeria
alone is estimated to have between 12 and 15 million child labours.
According to human right watch (2004), at 15 million India has the
largest child labour force in the world while Palistan records 7.5
million child labourer an Senegal about 500,000
The dramatic increase in child labour and street trading in
Nigeria can be attributed in several factors. The rapid population
growth of many loss developed countries, high rate of unemployment,
inflation, low wages and deplorable working conditions have contributed
to incidents of street trading and child labour as children attempt to
help support their families (Charles and Charles, 2004, Deth, 1993).
According to Arat (2002), the proliferation of industries can also be
linked to an increase in street trading and child labour.
Social ills affecting children have been area of active empirical
investigation. Indeed numerous studies exist on children who aling with
their parents are homeless, and children who hawk in the street
before, after school and on weekends and holidays. This study will bring
to light the dangers associated with street trading and child labour
as reported by children who engage in these practices. The major
objective will be to identify the health educational and social
consequences of street trading and child labour in the Yenegoa
metropolis of the Beyalsa State.
In some cases children involved in child labour to help their
parents or families in terms of financial distress by paying for some
or all of the family’s rent, food, clothes, utilities and so on. In
addition to these expenses, national estimates put the number of
children under 14 years of age working to pay for the cost of school at
8 million (fos, 2008). The same estimates reveal that about one (1)
million children have been forced to drop out of school because their
parents demand that they stop attending in order to boost the family
income. These statistics most certainly carry consequences for manpower
development and human resources of he nation.
CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
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CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT