THE TEACHERS’ TRAINING AND WORK PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.1 Concept of training and professionalism
2.2 The Concept of Human Resources Management
2.3 Importance of Human Resources Management
2.4 Types of Training and Teacher Development Techniques
2.5 The assumed outcomes of Training and Teacher Development (Changes in skill, attitude and knowledge)
2.6 Staff Development and their Productivity
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.4 Research Instrument
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection
3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis
Data Analysis and Presentation of Results
4.2 Descriptive Analyses of Teachers’ Biographic Data Based on Age, Sex, Marital Status and Duration of Service
4.3 Descriptive Analyses of Teachers’ Responses to Questionnaire Using the Research Questions
4.4 Descriptive Analyses of Students’ Bio-Data According to Sex and Age Range
4.5 Descriptive Analyses of Students’ Responses to Questionnaire Using the Research Questions
4.6 Hypothesis Testing
4.7 Summary of Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of the Study
1.8 Background to the Study
Training has been defined as “an
organised procedure by which people learn knowledge or skills for a
definite purpose”. It is a process for equipping the employee
particularly the non-management employee with specific skills e.g.
technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing, artistic
skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to improve on
their performances and overall efficiency (Banjoko, 2001).
Asobie (2002), states that the
objective of training is to enable employees to perform his/her job in
such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control,
safety and other operational requirements.
Ayodele (2003) states that, for the
fact that ours is a world that is currently undergoing rapid changes
particularly in the area of skill obsolescence and technological
capability, training is not exclusively reserved for newly employed
staff but also for the old employees as well. It is therefore, for the
purpose of enhancing individual performance that training and
development should be made a continuous process that should last through
an employees entire working life. Anyanwu (2004) affirms that because
low and middle level employees need to adapt to new skills and
technologies, while managers and top management personnel need deeper
knowledge and understanding of their jobs, the jobs of others, a good
understanding of where and how their jobs fit into the wider
organisation pattern, an understanding of government and societal
constraints, and a sensitive social awareness of the environment within
which organisation or school operates.
For jobs like teaching that requires
complex and diverse range of skills and knowledge, a period of
apprenticeship training is usually required. For example, in technical
jobs such as carpentry, plumbing, printing, welding, engraving, tool
making, and other jobs that require long period of practice and
experience, apprenticeship programmes are necessary if the trainee is to
fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job.
Besides, since training takes place over an extended period of time, the
distributed learning necessary to master such skills is able to take
place. In addition, when apprenticeship programmes or training is well
planned and operated, it permits the integration of the best features of
on-the-job training and off-the-job training. It gives the apprentice
an opportunity to earn something while learning (Banjoko, 2001).
Constant training or organisation of
seminars, workshops and other courses for teachers would improve to a
great extent, the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers’ productivity
in the school environment. Teachers occupy a central position in
harnessing the administrative and material resources necessary to blend
with learners (students). According to Nkemakolam (2005), a close look
at the Nigerian schools, especially the public schools, one would find
out that there exists a shortage of technical teachers in many primary
and secondary schools. This is largely due to lack of job satisfaction
as a result of poor conditions of service, lack of motivation,
ineffectiveness on the job due to non-further training etc. In any case,
this affects students’ academic performance.
Onuoha and Uzodinma (2000), state that
once an organization has employed those it considered qualified,
suitable and competent to perform those jobs for which they were hired,
it must embark on an effective training and development programme that
is necessary to enhance the productive capabilities of the newly hired
employees, while it also embarks on training and retratining the old
workers or employees in order to maximize their productivity.
Training of staff is important in the
following ways: to remove performance deficiency; to match the
employees’ abilities with the job requirements and organizational needs;
to enhance organizational viability and the transformation process, to
cope with the new technological advancement; to improve quality and
quantity of work; to improve productivity and efficiency; to help staff
cope with increased organizational complexity resulting from increased
mechanization automation. Training, sometimes, may be undertaken to
enhance employees’ self-esteem; to boost staff morale and thereby
improve organisational climate, especially, in the school (Munonye,
For teachers to maximize their
potentials or exhibit maximum effectiveness in their duties in the
school system, constant staff training and development programmes must
be put in place and these programmes must be geared towards the
enhancement and improvement of teachers work performance which will also
enhance the academic performance of students in the school environment.
1.9 Statement of the Problem
Training is very essential in the
creation of high productivity of staff, especially teachers in the
school system. When teachers are not trained, it brings about emptiness
in teaching and learning process. Non-trained teachers in the school are
not only cheats, they are not helping the school system to grow and
develop. People who teach in the school without having the required
qualifications, are the causes of low standard of education and low
students’ academic performance (Ayo, 2003).
The school system in Nigeria, has the
problem of untrained teachers who have greatly infiltrated into the
teaching profession, because they think that teaching is an all-comers’
job. They think that everyone knows how to teach, but they forget that
not everyone is trained to teach. Untrained and inexperience teachers
lack the mastery of content (what to teach), the methodology (how to
teach). Any teachers who do not possess the mastery of both what to
teach and how to teach cannot be said to be a teacher in the first
place. Untrained and teachers therefore, lack the skills and the
capabilities to achieve the goods in teaching and learning process. It
is this belief that the researcher is motivated to find out the extent
to which training influence teachers development and their job
performance in secondary school.
1.10 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to
examine the teachers’ training and work performance in selected
secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Other objectives of the study include:
(1) To find out what types of training programmes are available for teachers in schools
(2) To evaluate the training needs of teachers in the school.
(3) To differentiate the productivity of male and female teachers in the school.
(4) To find out whether there is
a relationship between training of teachers and academic performance of
students in the school.
1.11 Research Questions
The following research questions will be raised in this study:
- What types of training programmes are available for secondary teachers in Lagos State?
- What areas do teachers need to be trained as identified by them?
- How do we differentiate the productivity of male and female teachers in the school?
- Will there be any relationship between training of teachers and academic performance of students in the school?
1.12 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study:
- The types of training programmes available for teachers will not affect their productivity in secondary schools.
- There is no significant difference between the productivity of male and female teachers in Lagos State.
- There is no significant relationship between the training of teachers and teachers’ productivity levels.
1.13 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following individuals in many ways:
- Principals: This study will help managers of the
school system, benefit from the findings and recommendations made by the
researcher. This is because, the principals would be able to understand
the essence of maintaining a conducive atmosphere in the school. It is
important that principals maintain good relationship with their teachers
and students so that they will be able to have good school climate
running in the school for the overall maximization of high productivity.
- Teachers: They will benefit from this study because
it will enable them to be able to know more about the essence of having
good principal – teacher relationships in the school, and how bad
principal – teacher relationship can affect the school atmosphere badly.
This is because nothing works in an organization or school where there
is rancour and bad blood amongst principals, teachers and school
community or even students and parents. For the school to achieve its
goals and objectives, it must operate on good climate or cordial culture
which promote high productivity.
- 3. Parents: Parents
being one of the important stakeholders in the school system, ought to
be in good relationship with the principals, the teachers and all that
are in the school. Therefore, assisting parents to be able to be well
informed on the importance of having their children in schools where
there is good relationship among the school personnel and schools where
there is provision of infrastructures and other amenities in the school.
- Society: The society will be able to appreciate
this study because, it will enable them to have the insight on the
essence of school climate which promotes high productivity of both
teachers and the students. Not only the society, the young researchers
and others in the society will find this study a good reference material
in their studies.
1.14 Scope of the Study
This study will cover the examination of
the staff training in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local
Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined thus:
Employee Behaviour: Refers to manners, moral conduct and treatment shown to or towards management
Workers’ Productivity: This
has to do with the total output or result of work obtainable from the
input of employees in any organisation. In other words, it is the total
production level of all the workers in a company, industries, schools
and other parastatals within the private and public sectors.
Job fulfillment: This is the final result an organization intends to see from the employees after being motivated.
Training: This means
training somebody for something in order to be somebody or something;
the act of giving teaching and practice to an individual or a worker in
order to bring to a directed standard of behaviour, efficiency or
Staff Training and Development: Training
and development are processes for equipping the employees particularly
the non-managerial employees with specific skills e.g. technical skills
such as plumbing, electrical, wiring, repairing, artistic skills,
clerical and typing skills that could enable them to improve on their
performances and overall efficiency. Adamson and Adamson (2000) state
that the objective of training and development on the job is to enable
an employee to perform his job in such a way as to meet the standards of
output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational