study investigated welfare
packages and job performance of English teachers’ in public secondary schools
in Education District II of Lagos State. The
participants for the study consisted of 150 teachers randomly selected from 15
public secondary schools in the chosen area. A questionnaire entitled “Welfare
Packages and Teachers’ Job Performance Descriptive Questionnaire (PLBTJPQ)) was
used to gather data. Data so collected were analyzed using Pearson Product
Moment Correlation Coefficient to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of
significance.. Findings from the study revealed that: there was a significant
relationship between teaching facilities; condusive work environment,;
sponsored training programmes; regular payment of salaries; free health care
services and teachers’ job performance.
Based on these findings, it was suggested, among other things, that
teachers’ welfare services should be given highest regard and priority in order
to enhance teachers’ job performance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
to the Study 1
of Problem 4
of Study 6
of the Study 8
of the Study 9
of Terms 9
Concept of Welfare Services/ Packages 11
Packages and Teachers’ Job Performance 13
Theories related to Welfare Packages 29
of Literature Review 38
& Sampling Technique 40
of Instrument 41
of Instrument 41
of Data Analysis 43
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF
of Research Questions 44
of Hypothesis 51
of Findings 55
SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, AND CONCLUSION
of Findings for Policy and Practice 61
for Further Research 62
Background to the Study
is, the desire to do the job is recognized as a key factor in teacher attitude
to work. One major goal of educational management today, according to Imam
(2006) is effectively utilizing teachers in the schools to achieve the goals of
education. This implicitly means that there is emphasis on teacher’s
performance and result-oriented schools. Thus, Imam (2003) was emphatic that
there is need for effective human resources management strategies that aim at
positive attitude towards job and effective performance.
It is the good
of the elementary and secondary public schools in Nigeria to provide a high-quality
education to every student. To do so
requires an adequate supply of competent individuals who are willing and able
to serve as teachers. Organization such
as the school needs teachers to work willingly towards achieving organizational
goals. Willingness to work however
depends on how well the needs of individual teachers are met (Isa, 2007).
Teachers as all
levels of education are very important in the overall development of any nation
through their impact in the educational system. Education itself is the door to
civilization and modernization of any country. But it is the teachers who hold
the key to this door through performance of their primary functions in the
schools. This fact was stressed by Nyerere (1967) when he stated that “it is
the teachers more than any single group of people who determine the attitudes
of society and shape the ideas and aspirations of the nation”.
quality of any educational system depends to a great extent on the quality of
teachers in terms of incentive or welfare services which in turn is expected to
produce a competent and dedicated workforce.
Corroborating this, Ejiogu (1990) noted that a major goal of personnel
management in any organization is the production of satisfied employees who
will remain happy on the job to contribute their best towards achieving the
organization’s objectives at minimum efforts.
services in education is a situation whereby a combination of relevant factors
and variables lead to the satisfaction of the needs of individuals and of the
collective body of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools. The provision of those basic needs also
pre-supposes the attainment of a reasonable degree of commitment. These staff
welfare services include:
- financial reward and promotion;
- free or subsidized medical services;
- official accommodation or housing
- regular salary increment and payment;
- free or subsidized transport or
welfare of teachers should constitute major necessary concern of any
forward-looking educational programme.
In line with this, the National Policy on Education (F.G.N., 2004)
asserts that teacher education will continue to be given a major emphasis in
all educational planning because, “no education system can rise above the
quality of its teachers”. In order to enhance the fulfillment of this
provision, this policy went further to state that purpose of teacher education
a. to produce
highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels
of our educational system; and
b. to enhance
teachers’ commitment in the teaching profession.
these set of objectives, the National Policy on Education further recommend
ways and means by which these objectives could be achieved. A cursory glance
through the recommended steps reveal a set of master plan towards the
enhancement of an effective and efficient teaching force, through adequate
motivation through provision of basic human needs. Motivational
factors/variables have its role in meeting human needs, because it is believed
to lead to job satisfaction, positive attitude and consequently work
productivity of workers.
plays a major role in the transformation of any society, and the teachers are
the tool for effecting this, it therefore becomes essential and imperative that
the issue of welfare packages for teachers should be examined with a view to
determine the influence of its provision or otherwise on the attitude and
performance of teachers. In essence, the
focus of this study is to examine welfare packages and performance of English
teachers in public secondary schools in Educational District II of Lagos State.
Statement of the Problem
In all school
systems of the world, some schools are considered better than others. In fact,
based on such a judgement, parents often go to great lengths to have their
children enrolled in one school rather than another. One yardstick for making this judgement is
student achievement, especially general performance in public examinations.
Furthermore, among some experts and scholars in education opinions about
schools are further narrowed down to teachers’ attitude towards teaching and
the eventual performance. This, some have attributed to inadequate welfare
packages to teachers.
motivation for efficient performance in our educational system has not always
received due attention despite the obvious leading roles teachers play in the
classroom towards attaining educational objectives. The International Labour Organization (ILO)
lamented that the situation of teachers in the school system in the Sub-Saharan
region (including Nigeria) was so bad it had reached an intolerable low point.
have shown that the societal image of the teacher has made the noble profession
unattractive and considered as not being adequate for meeting economic, social
and psychological needs. Thus, the question is that: won’t the ill-treatment
and neglect of teachers breed dissatisfaction and hamper classroom
effectiveness, efficiency and productivity?
It is on this basis, the study will examine the influence of welfare
services on teachers’ attitudes towards work and their job performance.
Purpose of the Study
The main focus
of this study is to examine the influence of welfare packages on English
teachers’ job performance. But
specifically, the study will:
1. examine if
adequate provision of teaching facilities will influence teachers’ job
2. examine the
influence of conducive work environment on teachers’ job performance;
3. find out the
role of regular payment of salaries on teachers’ job performance;
4. assess the extent
to which sponsorship of training programmes will influence teachers’ job
5. examine the influence of free health care
services on teachers’ performance.
The following questions are formulated to guide the study.
1. Will adequate
provision of teaching facilities influence teachers’ job performance?
conducive work environment influence teachers’ job performance?
3. Does regular payment of salaries influence
teachers’ job performance?
4. To what
extent would sponsorship of training programmes influence teachers’ job
5. Would provision of free health care
services influence teachers’ job performance.
The following hypotheses are postulated to guide the study.
1. There is no
significant relationship between teaching facilities and teachers’ job
2. There is no
significant relationship between conducive work environment and teachers’ job
payment of salaries is not significantly related to teachers’ job performance
4. Sponsorship of
training programmes will not significantly influence teachers’ job performance.
5. There is no
significant relationship between provision of free health care services and
teachers’ job performance
Significance of the Study
There is no
doubt that the findings from this study would be of immense benefits to various
stakeholders in education, considering the fact that no nation can rise above
the quality of its teachers. The findings, for instance, would be beneficial to
the government agencies. The government’s perception of the essence of adequate
provision and regular administration of welfare packages would be enhanced.
Also, it would
enhance educational administrators and policy makers who need empirical
information in getting the best out of teachers; it might also provide the
direction for motivating teachers in secondary education system through the
knowledge of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction variables which could be
tapped to improve teachers’ attitude towards work and job performance.
other stakeholders in education such as parents, philanthropists,
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Alumni Association, international
bodies, corporate bodies, among others, would be sensitized to contribute their
own quota towards the welfare of teachers; these could be material or financial support.
Scope of the Study
The study is
limited to selected public secondary schools in Education District II of Lagos
State. The targeted participants are English teachers. The study focuses mainly
on the influence of teaching facilities, conducive work environment, regular
payment of salaries, sponsorship of training programme and free health care
services on teachers’ performance.
Definition of Terms
Welfare Packages – these are tangible
materials that are provided as job rewards and motivation to teachers. These
include financial reward (salaries and allowances, subsidized medical services,
loan schemes), teaching facilities, regular payment of salaries, on-the-job
training, among others.
Teachers’ Attitude – this refers to a
judgemental ability and disposition of an individual teacher based on personal
values, psyche, and emotional towards external events and the behaviour of
Job Performance – this refers to the
process of maximally performing a task towards achieving the stated objectives.
Teachers’ Job Satisfaction – this is
the ability of the teacher to derive satisfaction and exhibit positive or high
morale on the job.