The study attempted to investigate the
relationship between school facilities and students performance in
selected public secondary schools in Lagos State. In this study relevant
related literature review was carried out under sub-headings.
The research survey design was used in
order to assess the opinions of the respondents with the use of the
questionnaire and the sampling technique.
A total of 120 (one hundred and twenty)
respondents were sampled for the study. Two null hypotheses were
formulated and tested in this study, the independent t-test for
hypothesis one and three, while hypotheses was tested using the pearson
product moment coefficient statistical tool at 0.05 level of
At the end of the analysis, the following results emerged:
(1) Hypothesis one revealed that
there is a significant relationship between facilities and students’
academic performance in the schools.
(2) Hypothesis two found that
there is a significant difference between the academic performance of
students who attended schools where there are facilities and those whose
schools do not have facilities.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 Introduction: Background to the Study 1
2.0 Statements of the Problem 4
3.0 Purpose of the Study 5
4.0 Research Questions 6
5.0 Research Hypotheses 7
6.0 Significant of the Study 7
7.0 Scope and Limitations of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review 10
2.1 Concept of Education Facilities 10
2.2 Educational Facilities and Planning 11
2.3 Maintenance of School Facilities 16
2.4 Disparities Between Urban and Rural Areas in
Educational Facilities 21
2.5 Maintenance Concepts: Rehabilitation Remodeling,
Modernization, Replacement 22
2.6 Nature of Infrastructures in the School System 24
CHAPTER THREE: Research Design and Methodology 31
3.0 Introduction 31
3.1 Research Design 31
3.2 Population of the Study 31
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 31
3.4 Research Instrument 32
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection 32
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure 32
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis Interpretation of Results
and Summary Of Findings 33
4.1 Introduction 33
4.2 Hypothesis Testing 33
4.3 Summary of Findings 37
CHAPTER FIVE: Discussions, Summary, Conclusions
and Recommendations 38
5.1 Introduction 38
5.2 Discussion of Findings 38
5.3 Summary of the Study 40
5.4 Conclusions 41
5.5 Recommendations 42
5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies 44
1.0 Background to the Study
Facility means the system which supports
the operation of an organisation or an institution to carry its daily
activities and to promote growth and development in such organisation or
Facility refers to the entire
environment of the school or an organisation, it refers to both the
physical and material resources available to the students and teachers
in the school to facilitate their learning and teaching process. The
classrooms; the libraries and the laboratories for sciences are the
three main areas of facilities identified in the school system or
environment. (Onyeji, 1990)
Yeloye (1990) states that in terms of
the availability of the libraries as one of the school facilities, a
great many of our secondary schools have no functional libraries, and
where some libraries are found, there are no new or current books that
are relevant to the current secondary school programmes. In effect there
are no library facilities in most of the secondary schools in Nigeria,
especially in Lagos State.
The importance and uses of the library
cannot be under-rated. Libraries and books give great assistance to both
the teachers and the learners. In a situation whereby our secondary
school students are left with no choice to make their text books as the
only source of knowledge, the danger of exposing them to obsolete
knowledge in old books donated by the British Council several years ago
as one normally finds in the old secondary schools should not be
overlooked. According to Dada (1994), any one who is familiar with
secondary school classrooms in Nigeria, especially in Lagos State, will
agree that no meaningful teaching/learning activities can effectively
take place in most of them, even if teachers are God-sent and the
learners are celetial pack of highly intelligent personalities, the
problem is that where there are classrooms, they are overcrowded to the
extent that rooms originally meant for between 30 and 40 students, take
between 60 and 80 students with a good number of them sitting on
windows. In this situation, neither the teacher nor the students can
move freely as expected in our secondary school classrooms. This is why
many teachers do not give assignments to such large number of students
regularly as expected. And this has affected students academic
On science laboraories, Olarewaju (1994)
claims that only few schools have science laboratories which are well
equipped to carry out scientific experiments in courses such as biology,
physics, and chemistry. A good number of schools teach biology or
chemistry as if they are non-science subjects without laboratory. Some
other schools which are so during, teach the three branches of science
without laboratories in the hope that they would use other schools,
laboratories during their examinations or compel students to contribute
money for purchase of science equipment through the school Parents
Teachers Association (PTA). It should be noted that the greater failure
rate is in science because our schools lack the essential science to the
students but rather, resort to the theoretical science without the use
of laboratory. The contention is that the nation has been unfair not
only to students in our secondary schools but also to herself. This s
because no nation can develop technology through theoretical teaching of
science subjects, under poor educational facilities, no meaningful
teaching and learning can take place, and the normal refrain in the
educational circle is that all is well with our secondary schools.
2.0 Statements of the Problem
The importance of school facilities or
amenities in the development and growth of the educational sector cannot
be overemphasized. Many schools in Nigeria today do not have certain
school facilities that can make the teaching and learning to be easier
and enjoyable to both the teachers and the students.
Often times, there has been a constant
outcry of the inadequate provision or non-provision of the school
facilities, especially, the laboratories, the classrooms (buildings) and
the libraries which are the main school facilities that aid teaching
and learning process, for example due to lack of necessary equipment in
the school, teachers in the science fields find it difficult to
experiment and carryout practical teaching in the school, and the
resultant effect is that most science students fail their science
related subjects in the external and internal examinations.
Due to lack of provision of libraries,
and sufficient classrooms in the school, year after year, the academic
performance of students both in arts and science courses continued to go
down. This is because the teachers are not able to utilise the
instructional materials to present their teaching thoroughly for the
better understanding by the students. Infact the inadequate provision or
the non-availability of school facilities in our secondary schools is
what prompted the investigation of this study.
3.0 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to
examine the relationship between school facilities and students’
academic performance in selected secondary school in Mushin Local
Government Area of Lagos State. Other objectives of the study include:
(1) To find out whether there is relationship between school facilities and students’ academic performance.
(2) To find out whether there is no adequate provision of facilities in our secondary schools.
(3) To identify the causes of inadequate provision of school facilities in our secondary schools.
(4) To proffer solutions to the problems of inadequate provision of facilities in the secondary schools.
4.0 Research Questions
These research questions were raised for the study.
(1) Is there any relationship between school facilities and students’ academic performance?
(2) Are the facilities in our secondary schools adequate or inadequate?
(3) How can we identify the causes of inadequate provision of facilities in our schools?
(4) To what extent can the problems of inadequate facilities in the schools be solved?
5.0 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for the study:
(1) There will be no significant relationship between facilities and students academic performance in the schools.
(2) There will be no significant
difference between the academic performance of students who attended
schools where there are facilities and those who schools do not have
6.0 Significant of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following people:
(1) It is hoped that students
will benefit from this study because they would be able to have proper
insight and understanding that non provision of infrastructures in the
secondary schools will adversely affect their academic performance.
(2) Teachers it is hoped would,
through the study come to terms with the fact that the provision of
adequate infrastructures will help both students and teachers to
facilitate the teaching and learning processes.
(3) The school authorities would
utilize the findings and recommendations of this study to find solution
to the problem of inadequate provision of infrastructures in our
secondary schools. They would through this study understand better the
effect of inadequate provision of infrastructures in our schools, on the
teachers work performance and the academic performance of students.
(4) It would be of benefit to
parents because it will enable them to understand the effect of
inadequate infrastructures on academic and work performance of both
students and teachers. With the finding and recommendations of this
study parents would help the school authorities to find lasting
solutions to the problem of inadequate provision of infrastructures in
(5) The society will benefit from
the study because when there is adequate provision of infrastructure in
the schools teachers would work better to produce better crop of
students for the society.
7.0 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study will cover the relationship
between school facilities and students academic performance in Mushin
Local Government area of Lagos State. Sourcing of good materials for
literature review and other information collection posed a hindrance to