Background to the Study
motivation has become an important issue given their responsibility to impart
knowledge and skills to learners. It is argued that satisfied teachers are
generally more productive and can influence students’ achievement. Motivation
guide people‘s actions and behaviours toward achievement of some goals
(Analoui, 2000). In work and other contexts therefore, motivation is often
described as being intrinsic or extrinsic in nature (Sansone &
Harackiewicz, 2000). Intrinsic motivation, deriving from within the person or
from the activity itself, positively affects behavior, performance, and well
being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Extrinsic motivation on the other hand, results
from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material
possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations among others.
systematic literature review of Edmonds et al. (2002) concluded that teachers
are primarily attracted to teaching as a career by intrinsic motivators, for
reasons of intellectual satisfaction and in order to make a contribution to
society. Morgan (2005) highlighted the appeal of intrinsic rewards: working
with young people, pupils’ learning, rapport with pupils, improved teaching,
relations with colleagues, feeling part of a team and enjoying autonomy at work.
Teachers are highly dissatisfied with their remuneration and other conditions
of service (Chimwenje 2003). There is also a broad consensus
among other stakeholders, including community members and students that poor
incentives and conditions of service have resulted in low morale and thus poor
performance among teachers (Kadzamira 2003). Absenteeism and attrition were largely
influenced by teacher motivational factors with low salaries and poor working conditions
coming out strongly as underlying causes of absenteeism and attrition (Moleni
and Ndalama, 2004).
Teacher job efficiency is a
concern of everybody in the society. Wordweb Dictionary defines efficiency as Skillfulness
in avoiding wasted time and effort. In this respect, teacher efficiency
connotes the teachers’ role of teaching students in class and outside
the class. The key aspects of teaching involve the use of instructional
materials, teaching methods, regular assessment of students, making lesson plans,
assessment of pupils, conduct of fieldwork, teachers’ participation in sports,
attending school assembly and guidance and counseling. Therefore, teacher job efficiency
is the teacher‘s ability to integrate the experience, teaching methods,
instructional materials, knowledge and skills in delivering subject matter to
students in and outside the classroom. Teacher efficiency in this study will be
measured by regular and early reporting at school, participation in
extra-curricular activities, supervision of school activities, adequate
teaching preparation (schemes of work, lesson plans), marking and general
punctuality among others. Teaching is a mass occupation, which accounts for
one-half to two-thirds of public sector employment in most developing countries
(Bennell, 2004). While other professions (engineers, medical doctors and
lawyers) enjoy a high degree of self-regulation and are successful in
maintaining high barriers to entry in terms of qualification requirements and
registration, teachers on the other hand, tend to have weak, state-dominated
professional organizations with several trade unions. In addition, public
sector recruitment freezes in many countries during the 1990s have seriously
constrained the growth of the number of teachers in government or
government-aided schools. Although such events are expected to have affected
the morale of teachers to perform, detailed studies examining the effect of
motivation on efficiency of teachers are still scanty. Available evidence,
however, reveals that the teaching force has expanded rapidly in only a
relatively few countries (most notably Bangladesh, Malawi, Ethiopia, Eritrea,
Mozambique and Uganda) (Bennell, 2004).
Teaching has become employment
of the last resort among university graduates and secondary school leavers. Teachers
often lack a strong, long term commitment to teaching as a vocation. Besides,
the status and pay of primary school teachers compared to secondary school
teachers is generally much lower in developing countries. Thus, in the absence
of alternative employment opportunities, becoming a secondary school teacher is
the main avenue for social and economic advancement for the most able primary
school teachers. This has had important implications for intrinsic motivation
of primary school teachers (Bennell, 2004).
Nigeria, the Ministry of Education controls primary and other levels of
education. It trains, registers, constructs schools and teachers houses,
supplies all required teachers, prescribes a national curriculum and provides
text books, administrators and inspects all schools in the country. The primary
school system since independence has continued to expand, through service
providers such as government and the private sector who have been encouraged to
open up schools. There is growing fear that perhaps the massive number of
teachers without commensurate expansion in facilities, learning and teaching
materials; teaching morale may have compromised the quality of education along
the remuneration prior to the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE)
when most schools charged additional fees through Parents‘ Teachers
Associations (PTA) which money was used to supplement teachers‘ salaries. This
is no longer the practice and thus teachers must rely on the government salary.
with that, a high teacher-pupil ratio is a common phenomenon. Given the fact
that in practice it is not un common for a primary teacher to have more than
150 pupils, one may be surprised to note that there is a double shift system
where one teacher teaching two classes, one in the morning, the other one in
the evening as a model of reducing the class size without increasing the teaching
force. Yet as teachers’ salaries are so low, primary school teachers are
sometimes obliged to have a second job to make ends meet for them and their
family. All these coupled with frequent delays in the payment of these little
salaries, absence of staff accommodation, poor or no staff meals; tend to
reinforce absenteeism, low morale and lack of commitment to work (Ward, Penny
and Read, 2006). In view of the above situation, a study to examine the effect
of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers was deemed
necessary by the researcher.
Purpose of the Study
purpose of the study is to investigate teachers’ perception of motivation as a
measure of increasing efficiency in the teaching profession. The following are
the specific objectives meant to guide the study:
i. To examine the effect of motivation on
teachers’ morale to perform.
ii. To examine the effect of intrinsic motivation
on efficiency of teachers.
examine the effect of extrinsic motivation on efficiency of teachers.
Statement of the Problem
level of motivation of teachers remains central in the teaching job performance
debates. Government has improved the teacher payroll management and made
resources available for increase on the secondary school teachers’ salaries as
a way of motivation. Despite the above motivational factors, there has been
deteriorating standards of professional conduct, including serious misbehavior
(in and outside of work), poor preparation of teaching materials especially
lesson notes and general poor professional performance. Teacher absenteeism is
unacceptably high and rising, time on task is low and falling, and teaching
practices are characterized by limited effort with heavy reliance on
traditional teacher-centred practices. Such a situation has prompted the
researcher to conduct a study on teachers’ perception of motivation as a
measure of increasing efficiency in the teaching profession.
research will provide answers to the following questions:
i. What is the relationship
between teacher motivation and their morale to perform?
ii. What is the relationship
between intrinsic motivation and teachers’ efficiency?
iii. What is the relationship between
extrinsic motivation and teachers’ efficiency?
following hypotheses will be tested during data analysis at 0.05 level of
There is no significant relationship
between the motivation of teachers and their
morale to perform.
2: There is no significant
relationship between intrinsic motivation and teachers’
3: There is no significant
relationship between extrinsic motivation and teachers’
Significance of the study
This study is of importance in
this era of universal primary education, especially now that Nigeria needs
motivated staff if performance is to be enhanced at this level. The study,
therefore, seeks to explore possible strategies for improving school management
and administration. The study is of importance to the policy makers, primary
school and secondary school administrators as it identifies major strategies to
modify the behavior of teaching staff towards their job performance. It will in
particular identify strategies that will help to improve teachers’ morale and
working conditions, at the same time counteract the factors that lower the
teachers’ motivation. The study will be undertaken with the explicit objective
of enabling the researcher obtain a post graduate degree in education in Lagos
State University (LASU).
Delimitation of the study
The study is delimited to the
i. The study will be carried out in secondary
schools in Amuwo Odofin Local Government
Area of Lagos.
ii. The researcher will limit his findings to only
secondary schools teachers’.
iii. Regarding its content
scope, the study investigated whether motivation of teachers
affected their morale to perform, as well as the effect of intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation on the performance of teachers. Indicators of intrinsic
motivation assessed by the study included job satisfaction derived from
teaching, enjoyment of teaching, the challenging and competitive nature
of teaching, recognition, career development, control over others and,
teaching as one‘s goal in life. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation included
externally administered rewards like salary, free accommodation, free
meals, weekly duty and extra teaching allowances, advance payments in
case of financial problems, leave of absence and free medical care among others.
Also the study will be limited to five selected senior secondary schools selected
schools in Amuwo Odofin Local Government:
a. Amuwo Grammer School
b. Awori Secondary School
c. Kings High School
d. Hope Bay Collegeg
e. Kuje Secondary School
Limitation of the Study
following constraints may be encountered during the study:
of Respondents: - The attitude of respondents in some cases may not be
very encouraging. Many of them may show great apathy, some may withhold
necessary information about themselves, while others may give wrong
information for reasons best known to them. The researcher would persuade
the respondents in filling the questionnaires, assuring and explaining to
them that information provided would be used only for research purpose.
- Lack of
inadequate material: The nature of this research work demands a critical
search for materials usage; materials such as journals, textbooks,
magazines and other relevant materials, and this has posed a great
challenge to the researcher and has made the research a tedious exercise.
Internet source, libraries, and other sources will help to ease this
problem: There are some secondary schools that are very difficult to reach
as a result of poor communication, distance and bad roads. The researcher
will make use of schools located in urban areas in order to avoid these
of much data due to the fact that the study is restricted to teachers’
alone in those selected schools. The researcher will increase the sample
size in order to avoid this situation.
Operational Definition of Terms
Motivation: Is defined as a physiological or
psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is
arrived at a goal or incentive.
Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic
motivation results from the attainment of externally administered rewards,
including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations from
Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic
motivation is an inducement derived from within the person or from the activity
itself and, positively affects behavior, performance, and well-being.
Teaching: A process of impacting
knowledge, skills, competence into a learner.
Profession: An occupation that requires
Efficiency: Skillfulness in avoiding wasted
time and effort.