1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Political participation includes the
political activities of citizens aimed at influencing the political
process. Such participation could be either in an individual or group
basis. The political process may be the ways, directions and methods of
governance or the input of the outcomes of the process. The political
activities that may involve their participation: selection of leaders,
influencing decision of government and the process of governance. Okafor
& Okeke (2008).
Political participation includes those
action of private cities by which they seek to influence or support
government and politics. Political participation could either be
conventional or orthodox and unconventional or unorthodox. Writing on
convention and non-conventional political participation. Janda etal
state as follows:-
Thus, conventional participation is
legal, constitutional, acceptable and normal. Activities here may
include voting, campaigns and attendance to party meetings, expressing
political opinions, standing for elections, registration as a party
member and as a voter for an election contesting for elective offices,
party funding. These activities are in consonance with the normal
political process. Unconventional political participation includes those
activities that are not acceptable, not regarded as lawful and legal,
not sanctioned or not normal. They include such activities as riots,
strikes, violent, demonstration, arson, boycotts, rebellion, terrorism,
cultism, protests, and the like. It is felt that a higher propensity for
the emergence of unconventional participation is accentuated by the
existence of narrow or very limited conventional modes. For people to
express their feelings and be heard under a trained mode they have to
resort to unconventional approaches.
Conventional (orthodox) political
participation is of two fold. There could be supportive participation or
influencing participation. Under the supportive dimension, our citizens
express allegiance or loyalty to the state and government. Examples
include singing the national anthem, reciting the national pledge or
making reference to such symbols as the national flag and the coat of
arms, turning out for voting purpose, etc.
The influencing dimension is concerned
with efforts to modify or reverse government policy to suit political
interests. Examples include trying to secure some benefits from
government, asking for special social or welfare services from the
government such as setting up a health canter, construction or
rehabilitation of roads, sitting, a public school or police post. e. t.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
From the above background of study,
political participation is the vehicle through which citizens of a given
society communicate their interests, demands, desires, support and or
proposition to the authoritative decisions of the superstructure.
However it seems the levels of people participation in politics are
narrow may be due to the assertion that “politics is a dirty game”.
Since 2003, democracy has come to be regarded as the source for
political participation active towards rural direction. Therefore, this
study would seek to find solutions to the following problem:-
- Low level of education.
- The culture of corruption.
- Parochial political culture.
- Subject political culture.
- Primordial sentiment and low socio-economic development.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions to be investigated are:
- What is the profile cause of low level of education in ruralities of Ojo?
- Can culture of corruption affect political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
- Can parochial political culture contribute to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
- Is there any measure to be used to determine subject political culture in political participation in Ruralities of Ojo?
- What is the consequence of low socio-economic development on ruralities of Ojo?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To guide the study, the following null research hypotheses were raised to be tested:
- Low level of education cannot be significantly responsible for the
level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
- Culture of corruption cannot affect level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
- Parochial political culture cannot contribute to low level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
- Low socio-economic development cannot be significantly responsible for level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study is the level of
political participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area
of Lagos state. The scope was chosen due to the low level of political
participation of the people in the area and individual development.
1.9 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study will
encourage active participation of individuals in the political process
of their community. The study will also make the citizens to share in
governance through expression of consent, choice, rejection of
the leader and certain policies considers obnoxious. Through
participation, the citizen makes some input in governance through the
expression of demands, preferences, orientations, judgments and
1.10 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to the
ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state on the
level of political participation in 2008-2009.
1.11 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Influence: Power to produce an effect, esp. on character, beliefs or action.
- Political Participation: Is
the involvement of individual in political activities. It can be
through electional activities covers voting, campaigns, seeking to
persuade others to vote for a given candidate or party.