The study attempted to investigate the
relationship between school facilities and students performance in
selected public secondary schools in Lagos State. In this study relevant
related literature review was carried out under sub-headings. The
research survey design was used in order to assess the opinions of the
respondents with the use of the questionnaire and the sampling
technique. A total of 120 (one hundred and twenty) respondents were
sampled for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested in
this study, the independent t-test for hypothesis one and three, while
hypotheses was tested using the Pearson product moment coefficient
statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the
analysis, the following results emerged: that there is a significant
relationship between facilities and students’ academic performance in
the schools and here is a significant difference between the academic
performance of students who attended schools where there are facilities
and those whose schools do not have facilities. Based on the conclusion
of the study, the following recommendations were made thus: School
authorities should endeavour to supply adequate infrastructure to the
schools, especially at the secondary and primary school levels and
Government should ensure that the budgetary allocations for the
educational sector are increased so as to enhance the acquisition of
infrastructures in the school so that teaching and learning process will
be improved upon.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statements of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significant of the Study 7
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review 9
2.1 Concept of Education Facilities 9
2.2 Educational Facilities and Planning 10
2.3 Maintenance of School Facilities 15
2.4 Disparities Between Urban and Rural Areas in
Educational Facilities 20
2.5 Maintenance Concepts: Rehabilitation Remodeling,
Modernization, Replacement 21
2.6 Nature of Infrastructures in the School System 23
CHAPTER THREE: Research Design and Methodology 29
3.0 Introduction 29
3.1 Research Design 29
3.2 Population of the Study 29
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 29
3.4 Research Instrument 30
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection 30
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure 30
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and Discussion of Results 31
4.1 Introduction 31
4.2 Description of Bio-Data 31
4.3 Description of Students Response to the Research Questions 34
4.4 Hypothesis Testing 40
4.5 Summary of Findings 44
4.6 Discussion of Findings 44
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 48
5.1 Introduction 48
5.2 Summary of the Study 48
5.3 Conclusions 49
5.4 Recommendations 50
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 51
1.1 Background to the Study
Facility means the system which supports
the operation of an organisation or an institution to carry its daily
activities and to promote growth and development in such organisation or
Facility refers to the entire
environment of the school or an organisation, it refers to both the
physical and material resources available to the students and teachers
in the school to facilitate their learning and teaching process. The
classrooms; the libraries and the laboratories for sciences are the
three main areas of facilities identified in the school system or
environment. (Onyeji, 1990)
Facilities enhance teaching and learning
in schools. The state of facilities found in many Nigerian schools is
very discouraging. The shortage of classroom in many schools is so acute
than sixty pupils occupy classrooms that are meant for only forty
pupils. Library facilities, books, classrooms furniture, laboratories
and workshops are grossly inadequate. Urevbu (2006) has observed that
the physical environment of many primary schools in Nigeria presents a
sorry sight with dilapidated buildings, dingy classrooms devoid of seats
and writing tables, and dirty and non-functional or no toilets, the
physical environment of such primary schools is not conducive for
The inadequacy of facilities and
learning resources is responsible for the decline in the quality of
primary education. equally worrisome is a sanitation where classrooms do
not have science laboratories, and a large number of pupils go to
schools without basic textbooks and other materials (Urevbu, 2006).
Mennhein and Steward (2002) had
identified overcrowded classrooms as one of the causes of poor school
performance and examination malpractices. Teaching and management also
become difficulty. It is a well-know fact that the facilities and
equipment currently available are inadequate for the education in
If education in Nigeria must succeed,
adequate classrooms have to be provided to accommodate the large number
of pupils to cope with the expected surge in demand for education at
both the primary and junior secondary levels of education. Furthermore,
for the successful implementation of the educational programmes,
adequate planning need to be done. The scheme should not be concerned
with only quantitative aspects.
Libraries and books give great
assistance to both the teachers and the learners. In a situation whereby
our secondary school students are left with no choice to make their
text books as the only source of knowledge, the danger of exposing them
to obsolete knowledge in old books donated by the British Council
several years ago as one normally finds in the old secondary schools
should not be overlooked. According to Dada (1994), any one who is
familiar with some secondary school classrooms in Nigeria, especially in
Lagos State, will agree that no meaningful teaching/learning activities
can effectively take place in most of them, even if teachers are
God-sent and the learners are pack of highly intelligent personalities.
The problem is that where there are classrooms, they are overcrowded to
the extent that classrooms originally meant for between 30 and 40
students, take between 60 and 80 students with a good number of them
sitting on windows. In this situation, neither the teacher nor the
students can move freely as expected in our secondary school classrooms.
This is why many teachers do not give assignments to such large number
of students regularly as expected. And this has affected students
academic performance drastically.
On science laboraories, Olarewaju (1994)
claims that only few schools have science laboratories which are well
equipped to carry out scientific experiments in courses such as biology,
physics, and chemistry. A good number of schools teach biology or
chemistry as if they are non-science subjects without laboratory. Some
other schools which are so during, teach the three branches of science
without laboratories in the hope that they would use other schools,
laboratories during their examinations or compel students to contribute
money for purchase of science equipment through the school Parents
Teachers Association (PTA). It should be noted that the greater failure
rate is in science because our schools lack the essential science to the
students but rather, resort to the theoretical science without the use
of laboratory. The contention is that the nation has been unfair not
only to students in our secondary schools but also to herself. This s
because no nation can develop technology through theoretical teaching of
science subjects, under poor educational facilities, no meaningful
teaching and learning can take place, and the normal refrain in the
educational circle is that all is well with our secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of school facilities and
academic achievement of students cannot be overemphasized. This is
because, school facilities such as school libraries, laboratories,
spacious classrooms and so on, complete learning outcomes of students.
These days, overcrowded classrooms, non-availability of current books in
some secondary schools, libraries, lack of science laboratories in some
schools and unhygienic environment of some schools in Lagos State. This
has caused problem in the teaching and learning processes in the school
system and resultant effect is the low academic performance of
The above identified problems gave rise
to the examination of school facilities and students performance in
selected public and private secondary schools in Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to
examine school facilities and students’ academic performance in selected
secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Other objectives of the study will include to:
(1) find out whether there is relationship between school facilities and students’ academic performance.
(2) examine whether there is no adequate provision of facilities in our secondary schools.
(3) identify the causes of inadequate provision of school facilities in our secondary schools.
(4) proffer solutions to the problems of inadequate provision of facilities in the secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
These research questions will be raised for the study.
(1) Is there any relationship between school facilities and students’ academic performance?
(2) Are the facilities in the secondary schools inadequate?
(3) How can the causes of inadequate provision of facilities in the secondary schools be identified?
(4) To what extent can the problems of inadequate facilities in the schools be solved?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be formulated for the study:
(1) There will be no significant relationship between facilities and students academic performance in the schools.
(2) There will be no significant
difference between the academic performance of students who attended
secondary schools where there are adequate facilities and those who
attended secondary schools where there are inadequate facilities.
(3) There will be no significant
gender difference in the performance of students in public and private
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following people:
(1) It is hoped that students
will benefit from this study because they would be able to have proper
insight and understanding that non provision of infrastructures in the
secondary schools will adversely affect their academic performance.
(2) Teachers it is hoped would,
through the study come to terms with the fact that the provision of
adequate infrastructures will help both students and teachers to
facilitate the teaching and learning processes.
(3) The school authorities would
utilize the findings and recommendations of this study to find solution
to the problem of inadequate provision of infrastructures in our
secondary schools. They would through this study understand better the
effect of inadequate provision of infrastructures in our schools, on the
teachers work performance and the academic performance of students.
(4) It would be of benefit to
parents because it will enable them to understand the effect of
inadequate infrastructures on academic and work performance of both
students and teachers. With the finding and recommendations of this
study parents would help the school authorities to find lasting
solutions to the problem of inadequate provision of infrastructures in
(1) The society will benefit
from the study because when there is adequate provision of
infrastructure in the schools teachers would work better to produce
better crop of students for the society.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study will cover school facilities
and students academic performance in selected public and private
secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Sourcing of good materials for literature review, limited finance, time
frame and other logistics will pose hindrance to the study.