Background to the Study
Academic achievement ascribes to a
student's success in meeting short- or long-term goals in education. In
an extensive outline academic achievement refers to a person enduring
performance in a given academic arena. A student who earns real genre or
bestow in education has achieved in the academic field. Education
confederations and schools monitor the overall level of student academic
achievement to determine what, if any, changes need to be made in the
educational policy (Schutz, 1994).
Success in academics is a major wish and
desire for any good parent for their child or children, and though the
wish or desire isn’t only of the parent but also of the loved ones most
essential the government, accordingly, various factors have been put
into place to aid the students in achieving much academically. For
example, a conducive learning environment, a private tutor for the
student making textbooks available also certain guides have been applied
e.g. examining and perceiving of whatever is being taught that same
day, taking of brain demonstration enhancing fruits like banana,
discerning of self-reading style are employ both by student for
themselves, parent and government for the student. These elements have
subscribed to student academic achievement in some areas.
Academic achievements can be described
as a kind of behavioural product, an end result by itself and which is
expected to reflect how much the student has learnt or assimilated of
what have been taught;
i. Something must have been taught
ii. There must be a test
iii. The test result indicates how much of what has been learnt by the student
iv. The test result indicates achievement
Academic achievement is the outcome of
education, the extent to which a student has achieved their educational
goals. It is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment
but, there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which
aspect is most important-procedural knowledge such as skills or
declarative knowledge such as facts.
Individual differences in academic
performance have been linked to differences in intelligence and
personality. Student with higher mental ability as demonstrated by
Intelligent Quotient tests and those who are higher in conscientiousness
(linked to effort and achievement motivation) tend to achieve highly in
academic settings. Another very important enhancer of academic
achievement is the presence of physical activities. Studies have shown
that physical activity can increase neural activities in the brain
Academic achievement symbolises
performance result that connote the range to which a person has achieve
definite aim that were the focus of exercise in instructional
background. School operations mostly ascertain cognitive aims that
either apply across many subject areas (e.g., critical thinking) or
consist the collection of information and reasoning in a concrete
intellectual domain. Among the many facts they indicate academic
achievement, there are general indicators used to gauge it. Among the
countless criteria that connote academic achievement, they are very
comprehensive indicators such as arrangement and affirmative knowledge
attained in an educational policy more circular objected criteria such
as genre or accomplishment on an educational achievement test and
cumulative indicators of academic achievement such as educational
degrees and certificates. All criteria have in common that they describe
intellectual endeavours and thus, more or less mirror the intellectual
ability of a person (Steinmayr, Meibner, Weidinger, & Wirthwein,
2016). Academic achievement plays an important role in every person’s
life. Academic achievement is gauged by standardized assessments drafted
for adoption purpose such as the assessment test determines whether a
student will have the chance to continue his/her education. (e.g., to
attend a university).
The term ‘reflective thinking’ has been
applied to various affairs of life and it started long ago yet it is
still effective in teaching-learning procedure. Mann (2009) stated that
Dewey’s definition of reflection shares similarities with our
understanding of critical thinking. Dewey had defined reflection as
’active persistent and careful consideration of any belief or form of
knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further
conclusion to which it ends. Mezirow (1999) opined that theoretical
orientation of reflective thinking suggests that as adult gauge and
expand into their personal learning. They become more adaptive and are
able to benefit from their experiences. Jesen and Joy (2005) revealed
that reflective thinking involves not only cognitive processes, but also
affective, social, cultural and political reasoning. Furthermore,
Mezirow (1999) highlighted that reflective thinking; habitual action,
understanding, reflection and critical reflection, constitute the stages
of reflective thinking.
Habitual action is a mechanical and
automatic activity that is performed with little conscious thought
(Schutz & Lanehart, 1994). Habitual action is supported,
analytically, within the framework of reflective thinking. It consist
agilities of students that may be obligatory for student achievement.
Habitual action is more obvious, whereby learning is operated and very
little conscious thought is involved. Other agent that influences the
students is id they understand what they were taught.
The consistent factor that projects
academic achievement of students care daily actions that are associated
to cogitate habits of students which include consistent reading and
private studies, peer group, centrum, avoidance of subject, confident
about learning, teaching techniques by teachers and amusement habit of
students in respect of assimilation, these and many more habitual
actions in students’ studies that directly or indirectly affects
students’ achievement and subject understanding.
Habitual actions often go unnoticed in
persons, exhibiting it, because a person does not need to engage in
self-analysis when undertaking routine task. Habitual action emerges
from habit formation process by which attitude, through consistent
duplications, becomes habitual. The behaviour is the actual habit that
you are exhibiting and the reward, a positive feeling, therefore
continues the habit loop. A habit may initially be triggered by a goal,
but overtime, that goal becomes less necessary and the habit becomes
more automatically (Jaarsreld & Warlde, 2010).
Reflection concerns active, persistent
and careful consideration of any assumptions or beliefs grounded in our
consciousness. Reflection is a part of learning and thinking, Moon
(2004) stated we reflect in order to learn something, or we learn as a
result of reflecting, and the term reflective learning emphasis the
intention to learn from current or prior experience.
Reflection is a construct of certain
response to a situation and the encounter within those events. Moon
(2004) opines that reflection is a type of thinking aimed at achieving
better understanding. All the following are important aspects of
Mezirow (1990) opined that critical
reflection occurs when we analyse and challenge the validity of our
presuppositions and assess the appropriateness of our knowledge,
understanding and beliefs given our present contexts. Critical
reflection is a reasoning process to make explanation of an adventure.
Critical reflection is considered as a higher level of reflective
thinking that involves us become more aware of why we perceive things,
the way we feel, act, and do. Critical reflection is descriptive,
analytical and critical and can be articulated in a number of ways such
as in written form, orally, or as an artistic expression. This process
appends depth and breadth to an experience and builds affiliations
between course content and the knowledge. In the light of the foregoing,
this study examines reflective thinking factors influencing students’
Statement to the Problem
It has been identified that reflective
thinking has the potentials to influence the achievement of students in
the teaching-learning process and part of these processes are also
influenced by students’ academic performance. Education is very
important in this world and reflective thinking is a tool that promotes
good learning. A related question in view of these purposes and problem
was whether instructional practises characteristics of reflective
thinking produce alignment between these three elements resulting in an
increase in student academic achievements.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study
is to examine the combined and relative influence of reflective
thinking factor and student academic achievement. It hypothesised that
self-reflection and academic achievement influence each other
- What is the combined influence of reflective thinking factors on students’ academic achievement?
- What is the relative influence of reflective thinking factors on students’ academic achievement?
Significance of the Study
This study would enhance secondary
school teachers understanding of the factors that can affect the
achievement of students. The findings of the study would also help the
students to be exercise their thinking abilities in a reflective way. It
is also expected that this study would give secondary school
administrators valuable insights into the influence of thinking
dispositions on students’ achievement. It could also be a guide for
researchers who might wish to carry out a relate study.
Scope of the Study
The research work is limited only to
secondary school students in Akungba Akoko in Akoko South West Local
Government in Ondo State, Nigeria.
Definition of Terms
this is a part of critical thinking process referring specifically to
the process of analysing and making judgements about what has happened.
Secondary Schools: Secondary
school is a school which provides education to students between the age
of 11- 18, after primary school and before higher education.
connotes final accomplishments of something note-worthy after much
effort and often in spite of obstacles and discouragement.
Understanding: This the ability to comprehend or to perceive or ability to grasp.
Habitual action: Habitual action is a mechanical and automatic activity that is performed with little conscious thought.
is an act of casting back a mirror image or Reflection concerns active,
persistent and careful consideration of any assumptions or beliefs
grounded in our consciousness.
Critical reflection: Critical
reflection is considered as a higher level of reflective thinking that
involves us become more aware of why we perceive things, the way we
feel, act, and do.