PERCEIVED EFFECT OF MOTIVATIONAL TOOLS ON STUDENT-ATHLETES PERFORMANCE IN SOME SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
The purpose of the study was to examine
the perceived effect of motivational tools on student-athletes
performance in some selected tertiary institutions in Lagos state.
A total of one hundred and twenty
respondents were selected from two tertiary institutions in Lagos state
using a stratified random sampling technique to select sixty
student-athletes from Lagos state university and university of Lagos.
The study adopted a descriptive
research design and the instrument used for data collection was a
self-structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using
simple percentage and chi-square (x2) 0.05 level of significance.
Two hypotheses were stated and both were rejected. The findings revealed the following:
- Financial incentives have significant effect on student-athletes performance in Lagos state tertiary institutions.
- Non-financial incentives have significant effect on student-athletes performance in Lagos state tertiary institutions.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi – vii
1.1 Background to the study 1 – 7
1.2 Statement of the problem 8
1.3 Purpose of the study 9
1.4 Research questions 9
1.5 Research hypotheses 10
1.6 Significance of the study 10 – 11
1.7 Delimitation of the study 11
1.7 Limitations of the study 12
1.8 Operational definition of terms 12 – 13
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of sports and competitive sport 15 – 17
2.2 Student-athletes as a special population 17 - 18
2.3 Concept of motivation and types of motivation 18 – 24
2.4 Factors which can affect athletes motivation 24 – 26
2.5 Changes in motivational orientations 26
2.6 Satisfaction of needs and motivational strategies 27 – 30
2.7 Concept of rewards and incentives 30 – 31
2.8 How motivation enhances sports performance 32 – 33
METHODS AND PROCEDURES
3.1 Research design 34 – 35
3.2 Population 35
3.3 Sample and sampling technique 35
3.4 Instrumentation 35 – 36
3.5 Validity of the instrument 36
3.6 Reliability of the instrument 37
3.7 Procedure for data collection 37
3.8 Procedure for data analysis 38
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data analysis 39 – 43
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 44
5.2 Conclusion 45
5.3 Recommendations 45 – 46
References 47 – 50
Questionnaire 51 – 54
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Sport is a formalized phase of play and
games. It is an organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful
activity requiring commitment, strategy and fair play, in which a winner
or loser can be defined by objective means (Harper, 2008).
Sport is an incredibly important
contributor to human nature in our society. It has developed to become a
powerful political and social tool used for the advancement of
societies around the world. Sport at any level will replace the
necessary competitive edge in an individual and kindle the fire of
dedication and hard work.
Sport in educational institutions is one
of the oldest traditions in higher education. To this day, most
institutions of higher education have intercollegiate sport programmes
which means that a large number of students–athletes exist on campuses
(Michael and Nancy, 2004).
Many developing countries in which
Nigeria is one, have been relatively successful in international sports.
Nigeria’s success is notable in various international sports and this
makes it imperative for the country to start thinking about how to
improve and sustain the performance of her athletes for continued
success right from the tertiary institutions.
Biddel (2004) suggests that, athletes
who are well motivated are more likely to continue participating than
those who are not well motivated. He further stressed that, a highly
motivated athlete would be more eager to give a better performance than a
lowly motivated one with same skills.
If an athlete is not in a positive
psychological state, mistakes will be made in the performance and he/she
will not perform at the best level (Woods, 2007).
The impacts of tertiary institutions
sport in Nigeria has come under increasing focus in recent years
especially when comparison is made between them and those in United
States of America, England, Australia, China etc where it is believed
that such institutions make constant research into sports performance of
However, the not too impressive level
and poor performance of student-athletes in Lagos State tertiary
institutions are boiled down to the type of motivational tools been used
and its effect on their performance, particularly when valued by the
These tools influence motivation in
student–athletes and increases participation, interest, development,
skill acquisition and quality of performance.
These tools can be regarded as rewards
or incentives (financial or non-financial). Financial incentives
includes bonus, cash donations from sponsors, monetary allowance for
athletes in training camp etc. Non-financial incentives include
scholarship, insurance policy, material gifts, medals, awards, verbal or
non-verbal encouragements (praises, smile), trophy tours, public
recognition, media recognition etc.
It is appropriate for youth competitive
sport to include rewards or incentives just as they are included in
higher level of competition. It is essential for administrators and
coaches to provide athletes with support / reward for their
These tools mentioned above seems to be
important to both learning and performance of skills because it relates
to the amount of encouragement and remuneration received for taking part
in sporting activities (Lawler, 1992).
In April 2002, Delta State Government reward its coaches and athletes for coming second in final medals table of the 13th National Sports Festival in Edo State and made some promises ahead of the 14th
National Sport festival in Abuja. This appreciation in anticipation
motivated the athletes and they eventually came first in Abuja 2004,
final medals table (Vanguard, 2004).
Mshelia (1990) opines that talented
student–athletes in West African universities require incentives like
money, scholarship, insurance policy, media recognition, material gifts
and presents to keep them active in sports.
Eniola (1998) attributed that
student-athletes should be provided with financial incentives for
participating in one sports or the other because it goes a long way in
motivating the athletes. The athlete may see it as a means of settling
other monetary responsibilities.
Athletes feel secured and safe when they
are covered with a life assurance or accident relief insurance policy.
Since it has been said that whoever participate in sport is already
taking a risk of being injured or death (such as the case of Samuel
Okwaraji of Nigeria, Marc Vivien Foe of Cameroon and Dani Jarque of
Spain), provision of insurance policies for athletes is of paramount
Athletes are well motivated to
participate in competitions when they are rest assured that if they
sustain any injury they will be taken care of. Also, with the provision
of insurance policies, athletes have the instinct that their future is
bright and in the case of any accident in the course of participation,
they will not be neglected by the authorities or organizers in charge.
Tartary institutions should acquire group accident insurance for their
athletes because the intensity of competitive sports is very high, thus
higher risk is being taken.
According to Onifade and Fasan (1991),
athletes provided with gifts and presents as rewards for a certain
performance will strive hard to perform better in subsequent
competitions. Gifts and presents given to athletes for qualitative
performance motivate other upcoming athletes to emulate or even
supersede them. In 2003, Enyimba international Football club of Aba,
Nigeria, won the CAF Champions league, and the players and coaches were
given a car each. This motivated the players and coaches’ even better
that they won the competition in the following year. Other gifts and
presents used for motivation include phones, electronic items (T.V.
D.V.D etc) beverages, sporting equipments etc. These gifts and presents
sometimes come from sponsors or philanthropists.
Athletes can also be motivated by match
bonus and goal bonus. Match bonus is given to every member of a team
after winning or drawing a match, and it is sometimes given even when
they are defeated depending on the circumstances or after the
performance of the team has been evaluated. On the other hand, the bonus
given for goal scored either goes to the team or the player that scored
the goal. Bonuses are financial incentives because they are usually
paid in cash.
Media recognition via print and
electronic media companies plays a significant role in sports.
Journalist tends to report and telecast athlete or athletes that are
performing well in competitions and this goes a long way in motivating
athletes to put up a high performance in any competition.
Athletes that are on top of their game
usually appear on the pages of newspapers and attend live sport
programmes on radio and T.V stations, locally and internationally. Media
assessment propagates the athletes to concentrate on the sport in which
they partake in, knowing fully well that poor performance will be
criticized by the media and quality performance will be praised which
will in turn increase the value of such athlete locally and
Awarding of scholarship is also an
important motivational tool in tertiary institutions for
student-athletes. It is the most common way of motivating
student-athletes that performed well in inter-tertiary sport
competitions. Most tertiary institutions award scholarship to
student–athletes that return from inter-tertiary sports competitions
(NUGA, WAUG, WUGA) with a medal. These scholarships take care of their
tuition fees for that academic session or subsequent ones.
All these incentives or rewards were
meant to boost and sustain the performance of this special population
called student-athlete in sports competitions organized for tertiary
institutions. This study therefore, shall investigate the perceived
effect of motivational tools on student-athletes performance in some
sleeted tertiary institutions in Lagos State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study seeks to examine the
variational influence of motivational tools (financial and non-financial
incentives) on student–athletes performance, since it has been
generally established over the years that motivation influences
To some people, athletes are better
motivated to perform when the factors involved are internal i.e. from
within, such as determination to win, will power to excel etc while some
other people are of the opinion that external motivational factors
such as rewards or incentives (financial or non-financial) motivate
Therefore, the problem of this study is
that there is no clear cut as regards the influence of internal and
external motivational tools on student-athletes performance. In this
regard, the study shall investigate the influence of these motivational
tools on student–athletes performance in some selected tertiary
institutions in Lagos State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study was to show
the perceived effect of motivational tools such as bonus, cash donations
from sponsors, monetary allowance in training camp, scholarship,
insurance policy, material gifts and presents, awards, verbal or
non-verbal encouragement , public recognition and media recognition on
the performance of student–athletes in some selected tertiary
institutions in Lagos State, as well as the techniques and strategies to
be employed in preparing the athletes for a desirable
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
(1) Will financial incentives have
any effect on student-athletes performance in some sleeted tertiary
institutions in Lagos State?
(2) Will non-financial incentives
have any effect on student-athletes performance in some selected
tertiary institutions in Lagos State?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were tested in the study:
(1) Financial incentives will have no
significant effect on student – athletes performance in some selected
tertiary institutions in Lagos State
(2) Non-Financial incentives will have
no significant effect on student-athletes performance in some selected
tertiary institutions in Lagos State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is an addition to existing
knowledge in the field of sports, and physical education. It also serves
as a basis for further studies as regards the influence of motivational
tools (financial and non-financial incentives) on athletes’
performance. The study will be of great benefit to sport managers and
coaches as well as administrators as it will reveal the extent to which
the above mentioned motivational tools influences athletes performance.
Moreso, the institutions, and sports councils shall also find the
results of this study as a timely springboard to approach the management
on obstacles impeding the performance of their athletes in
inter-tertiary competitions such as Nigeria Colleges of Education Games
(NICEGA), Nigeria Polythecnic Games (NIPOGA), Nigeria University Games
(NUGA), West Africa University Games (WAUG) and World University Games
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was delimited to:
(1) Two selected Lagos State Tertiary Institutions
(a) Lagos State University, Ojo
(b) University of Lagos, Akoka
(2) Perceived effect of motivational
tools on student-athletes performance in the above mentioned
institutions was sampled through questionnaires.
(3) One hundred and twenty respondents were selected as sample for the study.
(4) The subject of the study included student-athletes (male and female) in each of the institutions
(5)Data were collected by the use of self-developed questionnaire.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The respondents felt bored in responding
to the research instrument (questionnaire) due to its quantity because
it contains two sections (A and B) but the researcher ensured that he
persuaded them to patiently respond to the questionnaire.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
ü Goal: An object of effort, target of achievement over a period of time.
ü Success: An accomplishment or achievement of purpose
ü Student-athlete: Refers to students who combine sports participation and their academic undertakings in tertiary institution.
ü Performance: This
refers to the measure of achievement in training and competition by an
individual or team or institution in terms of quantity and quality of
ü Motivation: The force setting a person into action and sustaining it until a particular target is achieved.
ü Sport: A competitive situation of a formalized phase of game.
ü Inter-tertiary sports: This implies various academic institutions for their students.
ü Tools: These are
incentives (financial and non-financial) used to boost and sustain the
performance of students –athletes during training and competition.
Methods of performance, it is the strategy used in teaching certain skills.